Abstract

Reflectance of continuous lithium deposits prepared at room and low temperature was investigated under normal incidence, for the energy range 0.5–6 eV. The structure of these deposits was determined in situ, using a replica technique. It is shown that continuous rough deposits exhibit a substantial dip in the reflectance above 2 eV. Our results are analyzed in terms of surface plasmons, Drude’s absorption, and interband transitions.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. A. Callcott and E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 839 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1033 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 775 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, and J. P. Palmari, Philos. Mag. 31, 1307 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, and R. Fraisse, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1757 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. 163, 855 (1967); Phys. Rev. B 1, 381 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. W. Berreman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 499 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, Phys. Rev. B 2, 309 (1970); Phys. Rev. B 2, 321 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday II 69, 65 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surf. Sci. 16, 85 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Y. Ching and J. Callaway, Phys. Rev. B 9, 5115 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. N. Hodgson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abeles (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 60.
  13. J. Bösenberg, Phys. Lett. A 41, 185 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, Philos. Mag. 25, 853 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. N. Butcher, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 64, 765 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. S. Ham, Phys. Rev. 128, 82 (1962); Phys. Rev. 128, 1524 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. O. E. Animalu, Phys. Rev. 163, 557 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. H. Cohen, Philos. Mag. 3, 762 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  19. U. S. Whang, E. T. Arakawa, and T. A. Callcott, Phys. Rev. B 6, 2109 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. G. Endriz, , Stanford Electronics Laboratories, Stanford University.
  21. J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).
  22. J. G. Endriz and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. F. Gesell, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. B 7, 5144 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Daudé, A. Savary, and S. Robin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. Rasigni, J. P. Palmari, and M. Rasigni, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1121 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  26. Since shadow casting angle is well known, it is possible to determine the defects height by measuring their shadows using very magnified replicas photographs.
  27. M. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, G. Rasigni, and R. Fraisse, Solid State Commun. 18, 629 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, J. Phys. F 3, 623 (1973).
    [Crossref]

1976 (2)

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, and R. Fraisse, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1757 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, G. Rasigni, and R. Fraisse, Solid State Commun. 18, 629 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

G. Rasigni, J. P. Palmari, and M. Rasigni, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1121 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, and J. P. Palmari, Philos. Mag. 31, 1307 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

T. A. Callcott and E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 839 (1974).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Ching and J. Callaway, Phys. Rev. B 9, 5115 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (4)

M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday II 69, 65 (1973).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 775 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, J. Phys. F 3, 623 (1973).
[Crossref]

T. F. Gesell, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. B 7, 5144 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (5)

A. Daudé, A. Savary, and S. Robin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1 (1972).
[Crossref]

U. S. Whang, E. T. Arakawa, and T. A. Callcott, Phys. Rev. B 6, 2109 (1972).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1033 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Bösenberg, Phys. Lett. A 41, 185 (1972).
[Crossref]

A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, Philos. Mag. 25, 853 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

J. G. Endriz and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (2)

D. W. Berreman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 499 (1970).
[Crossref]

D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, Phys. Rev. B 2, 309 (1970); Phys. Rev. B 2, 321 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surf. Sci. 16, 85 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

1967 (2)

A. O. E. Animalu, Phys. Rev. 163, 557 (1967).
[Crossref]

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. 163, 855 (1967); Phys. Rev. B 1, 381 (1970).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

F. S. Ham, Phys. Rev. 128, 82 (1962); Phys. Rev. 128, 1524 (1962).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

M. H. Cohen, Philos. Mag. 3, 762 (1958).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

P. N. Butcher, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 64, 765 (1951).
[Crossref]

Animalu, A. O. E.

A. O. E. Animalu, Phys. Rev. 163, 557 (1967).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, E. T.

T. A. Callcott and E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 839 (1974).
[Crossref]

T. F. Gesell, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. B 7, 5144 (1973).
[Crossref]

U. S. Whang, E. T. Arakawa, and T. A. Callcott, Phys. Rev. B 6, 2109 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

Ashley, E. J.

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

Beaglehole, D.

D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, Phys. Rev. B 2, 309 (1970); Phys. Rev. B 2, 321 (1970).
[Crossref]

Bennett, H. E.

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 499 (1970).
[Crossref]

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. 163, 855 (1967); Phys. Rev. B 1, 381 (1970).
[Crossref]

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, Phys. Lett. A 41, 185 (1972).
[Crossref]

Butcher, P. N.

P. N. Butcher, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 64, 765 (1951).
[Crossref]

Callaway, J.

W. Y. Ching and J. Callaway, Phys. Rev. B 9, 5115 (1974).
[Crossref]

Callcott, T. A.

T. A. Callcott and E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 839 (1974).
[Crossref]

U. S. Whang, E. T. Arakawa, and T. A. Callcott, Phys. Rev. B 6, 2109 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ching, W. Y.

W. Y. Ching and J. Callaway, Phys. Rev. B 9, 5115 (1974).
[Crossref]

Cohen, M. H.

M. H. Cohen, Philos. Mag. 3, 762 (1958).
[Crossref]

Daudé, A.

Dignam, M. J.

M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday II 69, 65 (1973).
[Crossref]

Endriz, J. G.

J. G. Endriz and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. G. Endriz, , Stanford Electronics Laboratories, Stanford University.

Fenstermaker, C. A.

C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surf. Sci. 16, 85 (1969).
[Crossref]

Fraisse, R.

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, and R. Fraisse, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1757 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, G. Rasigni, and R. Fraisse, Solid State Commun. 18, 629 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gasparini, J. P.

M. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, G. Rasigni, and R. Fraisse, Solid State Commun. 18, 629 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, and R. Fraisse, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1757 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gesell, T. F.

T. F. Gesell, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. B 7, 5144 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ham, F. S.

F. S. Ham, Phys. Rev. 128, 82 (1962); Phys. Rev. 128, 1524 (1962).
[Crossref]

Hamm, R. N.

T. F. Gesell, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. B 7, 5144 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hodgson, J. N.

J. N. Hodgson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abeles (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 60.

Hunderi, O.

D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, Phys. Rev. B 2, 309 (1970); Phys. Rev. B 2, 321 (1970).
[Crossref]

Mathewson, A. G.

A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, J. Phys. F 3, 623 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, Philos. Mag. 25, 853 (1972).
[Crossref]

McCrackin, F. L.

C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surf. Sci. 16, 85 (1969).
[Crossref]

Moskovits, M.

M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday II 69, 65 (1973).
[Crossref]

Myers, H. P.

A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, J. Phys. F 3, 623 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, Philos. Mag. 25, 853 (1972).
[Crossref]

Palmari, J. P.

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, and J. P. Palmari, Philos. Mag. 31, 1307 (1975).
[Crossref]

G. Rasigni, J. P. Palmari, and M. Rasigni, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1121 (1975).
[Crossref]

Rasigni, G.

M. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, G. Rasigni, and R. Fraisse, Solid State Commun. 18, 629 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, and R. Fraisse, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1757 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, and J. P. Palmari, Philos. Mag. 31, 1307 (1975).
[Crossref]

G. Rasigni, J. P. Palmari, and M. Rasigni, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1121 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 775 (1973).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1033 (1972).
[Crossref]

Rasigni, M.

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, and R. Fraisse, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1757 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, G. Rasigni, and R. Fraisse, Solid State Commun. 18, 629 (1976).
[Crossref]

G. Rasigni, J. P. Palmari, and M. Rasigni, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1121 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, and J. P. Palmari, Philos. Mag. 31, 1307 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 775 (1973).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni and G. Rasigni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1033 (1972).
[Crossref]

Robin, S.

Savary, A.

Spicer, W. E.

J. G. Endriz and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
[Crossref]

Stanford, J. L.

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

Whang, U. S.

U. S. Whang, E. T. Arakawa, and T. A. Callcott, Phys. Rev. B 6, 2109 (1972).
[Crossref]

Williams, M. W.

T. F. Gesell, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. B 7, 5144 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, and E. T. Arakawa, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 13, 989 (1968).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, and R. Fraisse, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1757 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday II (1)

M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday II 69, 65 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Phys. F (1)

A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, J. Phys. F 3, 623 (1973).
[Crossref]

Philos. Mag. (3)

M. H. Cohen, Philos. Mag. 3, 762 (1958).
[Crossref]

M. Rasigni, G. Rasigni, and J. P. Palmari, Philos. Mag. 31, 1307 (1975).
[Crossref]

A. G. Mathewson and H. P. Myers, Philos. Mag. 25, 853 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

J. Bösenberg, Phys. Lett. A 41, 185 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (3)

F. S. Ham, Phys. Rev. 128, 82 (1962); Phys. Rev. 128, 1524 (1962).
[Crossref]

A. O. E. Animalu, Phys. Rev. 163, 557 (1967).
[Crossref]

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. 163, 855 (1967); Phys. Rev. B 1, 381 (1970).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, Phys. Rev. B 2, 309 (1970); Phys. Rev. B 2, 321 (1970).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Ching and J. Callaway, Phys. Rev. B 9, 5115 (1974).
[Crossref]

G. Rasigni, J. P. Palmari, and M. Rasigni, Phys. Rev. B 12, 1121 (1975).
[Crossref]

U. S. Whang, E. T. Arakawa, and T. A. Callcott, Phys. Rev. B 6, 2109 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. G. Endriz and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
[Crossref]

T. F. Gesell, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. B 7, 5144 (1973).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A (1)

P. N. Butcher, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 64, 765 (1951).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

M. Rasigni, J. P. Gasparini, G. Rasigni, and R. Fraisse, Solid State Commun. 18, 629 (1976).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. (1)

C. A. Fenstermaker and F. L. McCrackin, Surf. Sci. 16, 85 (1969).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. N. Hodgson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abeles (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 60.

Since shadow casting angle is well known, it is possible to determine the defects height by measuring their shadows using very magnified replicas photographs.

J. G. Endriz, , Stanford Electronics Laboratories, Stanford University.

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Figures (7)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Carbon replica made in situ of a lithium deposit prepared at room temperature. (Evaluated thickness 90 nm.) W–Pt shadow casting at an angle of 50°. The line represents 1 μm.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Reflectance R′ (measured through the substrate surface) for two opaque deposits of lithium (respectively, ●, □) prepared at room temperature. - - - - - -: reflectance calculated according Drude’s theory.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Reflectance R′ vs incident energy ħω, ——: curve drawn through the data of Fig. 2; · - · - · - · -: reflectance calculated according Drude’s theory;- - - - - - - -: reflectance calculated according interband transitions theory; – · – · –: reflectance as determined from the values of n and k given by Callcott and Arakawa (Ref. 1).

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Optical conductivity vs incident energy ħω after Ching and Callaway (Ref. 11).

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Reflectance R (with incident photons on vacuum surface) for three opaque deposits of lithium (respectively, ●, ○, □) prepared at 6 K. - - - - - -: reflectance calculated according Drude’s theory.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Carbon replica made in situ of a lithium deposit prepared at 6 K. The reflectance of this deposit is plotted (○ ○ ○ ○ ○) on Fig. 5. W-Pt shadow casting at an angle of 70°. The line represents 0.5 μm.

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Reflectance R vs incident energy ħω. ——: curve drawn through the data of Fig. 5; · - · - · - · -: reflectance calculated according Drude’s theory; - - - - - - - -: reflectance calculated according interband transitions theory; – · – · –: reflectance as determined from the values of n and k given by Callcott and Arakawa (Ref. 1). RCallcott(S) and RCallcott(V), respectively, measurements with incident photons on substrate and vacuum surface.

Equations (8)

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R = [ ( n - n s ) 2 + k 2 ] [ ( n + n s ) 2 + k 2 ] .
n = { 1 2 [ ( 1 2 + 2 2 ) 1 / 2 + 1 ] } 1 / 2 ,
k = { 1 2 [ ( 1 2 + 2 2 ) 1 / 2 - 1 ] } 1 / 2 .
˜ = 1 + i 2 = 1 + χ e - ω p 2 ω 2 + γ 2 + i γ ω ω p 2 ω 2 + γ 2 .
Re [ σ ( ω ) ] = 2 π e 2 3 m 2 ω l , n d 3 k ( 2 π ) 3 l k p n k 2 × f l ( k ) [ 1 - f n ( k ) ] δ [ E n ( k ) - E l ( k ) - ω ] .
2 = 4 π σ / ω .
1 = 1 + χ e - ω p 2 / ω 2 + δ 1 ( ω ) .
δ 1 ( ω ) = 2 π 0 ω δ 2 ( ω ) ω 2 - ω 2 d ω = 8 0 δ σ ( ω ) ω 2 - ω 2 d ω ,