Abstract

Images of periodic phase objects are calculated for oblique illumination, the scanning method of Dekkers and de Lang, and differential interference contrast. The close relation between the scanning method and oblique illumination is shown. All the methods are capable of resolving grating periods larger than λ/2a, where a is the numerical aperture of both the objective and the condenser lenses. Differential interference gives higher contrast for object periods below λ/a; contrast is slightly higher above λ/a with oblique illumination.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. H. Hopkins, Proc. R. Soc. A 217, 408 (1953).
  2. M. Francon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 528 (1957).
  3. R. Hoffman and L. Gross, Appl. Opt. 14, 1169 (1975).
  4. N. H. Dekkers and H. de Lang, Optik 41, 452 (1974).
  5. W. T. Welford, J. Micros. 96, 105 (1972).
  6. D. Kermisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 887 (1975).
  7. E. Zeitler and M. G. R. Thomson, Optik 3, 258 (1970).
  8. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), Sec. 8.6.3.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), Sec. 8.6.3.

de Lang, H.

N. H. Dekkers and H. de Lang, Optik 41, 452 (1974).

Dekkers, N. H.

N. H. Dekkers and H. de Lang, Optik 41, 452 (1974).

Francon, M.

M. Francon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 528 (1957).

Gross, L.

R. Hoffman and L. Gross, Appl. Opt. 14, 1169 (1975).

Hoffman, R.

R. Hoffman and L. Gross, Appl. Opt. 14, 1169 (1975).

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. R. Soc. A 217, 408 (1953).

Kermisch, D.

D. Kermisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 887 (1975).

Thomson, M. G. R.

E. Zeitler and M. G. R. Thomson, Optik 3, 258 (1970).

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, J. Micros. 96, 105 (1972).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), Sec. 8.6.3.

Zeitler, E.

E. Zeitler and M. G. R. Thomson, Optik 3, 258 (1970).

Other

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. R. Soc. A 217, 408 (1953).

M. Francon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 528 (1957).

R. Hoffman and L. Gross, Appl. Opt. 14, 1169 (1975).

N. H. Dekkers and H. de Lang, Optik 41, 452 (1974).

W. T. Welford, J. Micros. 96, 105 (1972).

D. Kermisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 887 (1975).

E. Zeitler and M. G. R. Thomson, Optik 3, 258 (1970).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), Sec. 8.6.3.

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