Abstract

We show how the processes of visual detection and of temporal and spatial summation may be analyzed in terms of parallel luminance (achromatic) and opponent-color systems; a test flash is detected if it exceeds the threshold of either system. The spectral sensitivity of the luminance system may be determined by a flicker method, and has a single broad peak near 555 nm; the spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color system corresponds to the color recognition threshold, and has three peaks at about 440, 530, and 600 nm (on a white background). The temporal and spatial integration of the opponent-color system are generally greater than for the luminance system; further, a white background selectively depresses the sensitivity of the luminance system relative to the opponent-color system. Thus relatively large (1°) and long (200 msec) spectral test flashes on a white background are detected by the opponent-color system except near 570 nm; the contribution of the luminance system becomes more prominent if the size or duration of the test flash is reduced, or if the white background is extinguished. The present analysis is discussed in relation to Stiles’ model of independent π mechanisms.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. S. Stiles, Proc. R. Soc. B 127, 67 (1939).
  2. W. S. Stiles, Docum. Ophthal. 3, 138 (1949).
  3. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. 75, 100 (1959).
  4. W. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).
  5. P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).
  6. D. E. Mitchell and W. A. H. Rushton, Vision Res. 11, 1045 (1971).
  7. R. M. Boynton and D. N. Whitten, Science 170, 1423 (1970).
  8. J. M. Enoch, in Handbook of sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 21.
  9. P. E. King-Smith, Nature 255, 69 (1975).
  10. H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, Science 172, 180 (1971).
  11. P. E. King-Smith and J. R. Webb, Vision Res. 14, 421 (1974).
  12. R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).
  13. S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).
  14. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Psychol. Rev. 64, 384 (1957).
  15. R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).
  16. T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115 (1966).
  17. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 211.
  18. G. B. Rollman and J. Nachmias, Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309 (1972).
  19. L. Kerr, Vision Res. 14, 1095 (1974).
  20. D. Regan and C. W. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1414 (1971).
  21. G. J. C. van der Horst, C. M. M. de Weert, and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1260 (1967).
  22. R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 273 (1970).
  23. G. Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1289 (1967).
  24. H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784 (1958).
  25. H. E. Ives, Philos. Mag. 24, 845 (1912).
  26. H. G. Sperling and C. L. Jolliffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 191 (1965).
  27. H. R. Blackwell, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 4.
  28. J. Krauskopf and J. D. Mollon, J. Physiol. 219, 611 (1971).
  29. H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. 141, 337 (1958).
  30. C. Enroth-Cugell and R. M. Shapley, J. Physiol. 233, 271 (1973).
  31. G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 122, 332 (1953).
  32. S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450 (1973).
  33. D. P. M. Northmore and W. R. A. Muntz, Vision Res. 14, 503 (1974).
  34. P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, Vision Res. 15, 1103 (1975).
  35. P. Gouras, J. Physiol. 199, 533 (1968).
  36. P. Gouras, Vision Res. Suppl. 3, 397 (1971).

Abramov, I.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. 141, 337 (1958).

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 4.

Bouman, M. A.

G. J. C. van der Horst, C. M. M. de Weert, and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1260 (1967).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and D. N. Whitten, Science 170, 1423 (1970).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 122, 332 (1953).

Brown, P. K.

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).

Cavonius, C. R.

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 273 (1970).

de Lange, H.

H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784 (1958).

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

de Weert, C. M. M.

G. J. C. van der Horst, C. M. M. de Weert, and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1260 (1967).

Dobelle, W. H.

W. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).

Donley, N. J.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, in Handbook of sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 21.

Enroth-Cugell, C.

C. Enroth-Cugell and R. M. Shapley, J. Physiol. 233, 271 (1973).

Gouras, P.

P. Gouras, J. Physiol. 199, 533 (1968).

P. Gouras, Vision Res. Suppl. 3, 397 (1971).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450 (1973).

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).

Harwerth, R. S.

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, Science 172, 180 (1971).

Hilz, R.

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 273 (1970).

Hubel, D. H.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115 (1966).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Psychol. Rev. 64, 384 (1957).

Ikeda, M.

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, Philos. Mag. 24, 845 (1912).

Jacobs, G. H.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Psychol. Rev. 64, 384 (1957).

Jolliffe, C. L.

H. G. Sperling and C. L. Jolliffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 191 (1965).

Kerr, L.

L. Kerr, Vision Res. 14, 1095 (1974).

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith and J. R. Webb, Vision Res. 14, 421 (1974).

P. E. King-Smith, Nature 255, 69 (1975).

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf and J. D. Mollon, J. Physiol. 219, 611 (1971).

Lodge, H. R.

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450 (1973).

MacNichol, E. F.

W. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).

Marks, W.

W. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).

Marrocco, R. T.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).

Mitchell, D. E.

D. E. Mitchell and W. A. H. Rushton, Vision Res. 11, 1045 (1971).

Mollon, J. D.

J. Krauskopf and J. D. Mollon, J. Physiol. 219, 611 (1971).

Muntz, W. R. A.

D. P. M. Northmore and W. R. A. Muntz, Vision Res. 14, 503 (1974).

Nachmias, J.

G. B. Rollman and J. Nachmias, Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309 (1972).

Norren, D. V.

P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, Vision Res. 15, 1103 (1975).

Northmore, D. P. M.

D. P. M. Northmore and W. R. A. Muntz, Vision Res. 14, 503 (1974).

Padmos, P.

P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, Vision Res. 15, 1103 (1975).

Regan, D.

D. Regan and C. W. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1414 (1971).

Rollman, G. B.

G. B. Rollman and J. Nachmias, Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309 (1972).

Rushton, W. A. H.

D. E. Mitchell and W. A. H. Rushton, Vision Res. 11, 1045 (1971).

Shapley, R. M.

C. Enroth-Cugell and R. M. Shapley, J. Physiol. 233, 271 (1973).

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling and C. L. Jolliffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 191 (1965).

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, Science 172, 180 (1971).

Stiles, W. S.

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. R. Soc. B 127, 67 (1939).

W. S. Stiles, Docum. Ophthal. 3, 138 (1949).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. 75, 100 (1959).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 211.

Tyler, C. W.

D. Regan and C. W. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1414 (1971).

van der Horst, G. J. C.

G. J. C. van der Horst, C. M. M. de Weert, and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1260 (1967).

Wald, G.

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).

G. Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1289 (1967).

Webb, J. R.

P. E. King-Smith and J. R. Webb, Vision Res. 14, 421 (1974).

Whitten, D. N.

R. M. Boynton and D. N. Whitten, Science 170, 1423 (1970).

Wiesel, T. N.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115 (1966).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 211.

Other (36)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. R. Soc. B 127, 67 (1939).

W. S. Stiles, Docum. Ophthal. 3, 138 (1949).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. 75, 100 (1959).

W. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).

D. E. Mitchell and W. A. H. Rushton, Vision Res. 11, 1045 (1971).

R. M. Boynton and D. N. Whitten, Science 170, 1423 (1970).

J. M. Enoch, in Handbook of sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 21.

P. E. King-Smith, Nature 255, 69 (1975).

H. G. Sperling and R. S. Harwerth, Science 172, 180 (1971).

P. E. King-Smith and J. R. Webb, Vision Res. 14, 421 (1974).

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, Vision Res. 4, 87 (1964).

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, Vision Res. 9, 537 (1969).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, Psychol. Rev. 64, 384 (1957).

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115 (1966).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Colour Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 211.

G. B. Rollman and J. Nachmias, Percept. Psychophys. 12, 309 (1972).

L. Kerr, Vision Res. 14, 1095 (1974).

D. Regan and C. W. Tyler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1414 (1971).

G. J. C. van der Horst, C. M. M. de Weert, and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1260 (1967).

R. Hilz and C. R. Cavonius, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 273 (1970).

G. Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1289 (1967).

H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784 (1958).

H. E. Ives, Philos. Mag. 24, 845 (1912).

H. G. Sperling and C. L. Jolliffe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 191 (1965).

H. R. Blackwell, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972), Chap. 4.

J. Krauskopf and J. D. Mollon, J. Physiol. 219, 611 (1971).

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. 141, 337 (1958).

C. Enroth-Cugell and R. M. Shapley, J. Physiol. 233, 271 (1973).

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 122, 332 (1953).

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 450 (1973).

D. P. M. Northmore and W. R. A. Muntz, Vision Res. 14, 503 (1974).

P. Padmos and D. V. Norren, Vision Res. 15, 1103 (1975).

P. Gouras, J. Physiol. 199, 533 (1968).

P. Gouras, Vision Res. Suppl. 3, 397 (1971).

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