Abstract

We have made quantitative measurements of the ratio of the infrared spectral reflectance of standard sea water at near-normal incidence to the corresponding spectral reflectance of pure water at 27°C. The infrared spectral reflectance of standard sea water was determined from the measured ratio and the known optical constants for pure water. The real n(ν) and the imaginary k(ν) parts of the complex index of refraction of standard sea water were then determined by Kramer-Kronig methods. The results obtained for the standard sea water are compared with previous results obtained for pure water and with previous studies of sea water.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. W. Robertson and D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1316 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. N. Rusk, D. Williams, and M. R. Querry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 895 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. D. Downing and D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, A. N. Rusk, and D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1103 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, and M. R. Querry, J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238 (1974); J. Phys. Chem. 78, 1405 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. E. Hobson and D. Williams, Appl. Opt. 10, 2372 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. R. Querry (private communication).
  8. J. Lyman and R. H. Fleming, J. Marine Res. 3, 134 (1940).
  9. D. Friedman, Appl. Opt. 8, 2073 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. F. Palmer and D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1107 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (Van Nostrand–Reinhold, New York, 1945), p. 167.
  12. L. Pontier and C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

1975 (1)

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, and M. R. Querry, J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238 (1974); J. Phys. Chem. 78, 1405 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. F. Palmer and D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1107 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1971 (3)

1969 (1)

1966 (1)

L. Pontier and C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

1940 (1)

J. Lyman and R. H. Fleming, J. Marine Res. 3, 134 (1940).

Dechambenoy, C.

L. Pontier and C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

Downing, H. D.

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[Crossref]

Fleming, R. H.

J. Lyman and R. H. Fleming, J. Marine Res. 3, 134 (1940).

Friedman, D.

Hale, G. M.

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, and M. R. Querry, J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238 (1974); J. Phys. Chem. 78, 1405 (1974).
[Crossref]

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, A. N. Rusk, and D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1103 (1972).
[Crossref]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (Van Nostrand–Reinhold, New York, 1945), p. 167.

Hobson, D. E.

Lyman, J.

J. Lyman and R. H. Fleming, J. Marine Res. 3, 134 (1940).

Palmer, K. F.

Pontier, L.

L. Pontier and C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

Querry, M. R.

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, and M. R. Querry, J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238 (1974); J. Phys. Chem. 78, 1405 (1974).
[Crossref]

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, A. N. Rusk, and D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1103 (1972).
[Crossref]

A. N. Rusk, D. Williams, and M. R. Querry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 895 (1971).
[Crossref]

M. R. Querry (private communication).

Rhine, P.

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, and M. R. Querry, J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238 (1974); J. Phys. Chem. 78, 1405 (1974).
[Crossref]

Robertson, C. W.

Rusk, A. N.

Williams, D.

Ann. Geophys. (1)

L. Pontier and C. Dechambenoy, Ann. Geophys. 22, 633 (1966).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

H. D. Downing and D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Marine Res. (1)

J. Lyman and R. H. Fleming, J. Marine Res. 3, 134 (1940).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, and M. R. Querry, J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238 (1974); J. Phys. Chem. 78, 1405 (1974).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (Van Nostrand–Reinhold, New York, 1945), p. 167.

M. R. Querry (private communication).

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Figures (8)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Ratio of the near-normal-incidence spectral reflectances of SSW and SSW-2 to that of water. Samples were at 27 °C.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Near-normal-incidence spectral reflectance R(ν) of standard sea water at 27 °C.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Refractive index n(ν) of standard sea water at 27 °C.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Absorption index k(ν) of standard sea water at 27 °C.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Difference between the refractive index n(ν) for SSW and that of pure water.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Difference between the refractive index n(ν) for double-concentration standard sea water (SSW-2) and that of pure water.

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Difference between the absorption index k(ν) of SSW and that of pure water.

FIG. 8
FIG. 8

Difference between the absorption index k(ν) of double-concentration standard sea water (SSW-2) and that of pure water.

Equations (3)

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ϕ ( ν ) = 2 ν π P 0 ln [ R ( ν ) ] 1 / 2 ν 2 - ν 2 d ν ,
n = ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R - 2 R 1 / 2 cos ϕ ) ,
k = ( - 2 R 1 / 2 sin ϕ ) / ( 1 + R - 2 R 1 / 2 cos ϕ ) .