Abstract

Gradient refractive index antireflection films are produced by a chemical etch/leach process applied to glasses sensitized by a phase-separating heat treatment. The reflectance (two surfaces) is effectively reduced from ~ 8% to < ½% in the wavelength regime 0.35–2.5 µ. The broadband antireflection film consists of a single, porous, skeletal layer made up largely of silica. The optical properties of the film are shown to depend on the time, temperature parameters of the phase-separating heat treatment, as well as the time, temperature parameter of the film-forming etch/leach treatment. The properties of films produced under different process conditions are correlated in a fashion that suggests that progressively steeper refractive index gradients are obtained for samples phase separated and formed at higher temperatures. A number of applications for these films are suggested, including solar energy devices.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. F. Kollmorgen, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 220 (1916).
  3. F. L. Jones and H. L. Homer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 34 (1941).
  4. H. Schroeder, Z. Tech. Phys. 22, 38, 75 (1941).
  5. F. H. Nicoll, RCA Rev. 6, 298 (1942).
  6. F. H. Nicoll and F. E. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 434 (1943).
  7. S. M. Thomsen, RCA Rev. 12, 143 (1951).
  8. F. H. Nicoll, (RCA) US Patent # 2, 707, 899 (1955).
  9. S. M. Thomsen, (RCA) US Patent # 2, 490, 662 (1949).
  10. F. J. Nicoll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 241 (1952).
  11. L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (Chapman and Hall, London, 1966), pp. 155, 165.
  12. W. Vogel, Structure and Crystallization of Glasses (Pergamon, New York, 1971), pp. 60–80.
  13. Gerald B. Carrier, (to be published).
  14. Sebastiano F. Monaco, "Reflectance of an Inhomogeneous Thin Film," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 280 (1961).

Carrier, Gerald B.

Gerald B. Carrier, (to be published).

Fraunhofer, J.

J. Fraunhofer, in Gesamelte Schriften, edited by F. Hommel, (Munich, 1887).

Holland, L.

L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (Chapman and Hall, London, 1966), pp. 155, 165.

Homer, H. L.

F. L. Jones and H. L. Homer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 34 (1941).

Jones, F. L.

F. L. Jones and H. L. Homer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 34 (1941).

Kollmorgen, F.

F. Kollmorgen, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 220 (1916).

Monaco, Sebastiano F.

Sebastiano F. Monaco, "Reflectance of an Inhomogeneous Thin Film," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 280 (1961).

Nicoll, F. H.

F. H. Nicoll, (RCA) US Patent # 2, 707, 899 (1955).

F. H. Nicoll, RCA Rev. 6, 298 (1942).

F. H. Nicoll and F. E. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 434 (1943).

Nicoll, F. J.

F. J. Nicoll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 241 (1952).

Schroeder, H.

H. Schroeder, Z. Tech. Phys. 22, 38, 75 (1941).

Thomsen, S. M.

S. M. Thomsen, RCA Rev. 12, 143 (1951).

S. M. Thomsen, (RCA) US Patent # 2, 490, 662 (1949).

Vogel, W.

W. Vogel, Structure and Crystallization of Glasses (Pergamon, New York, 1971), pp. 60–80.

Williams, F. E.

F. H. Nicoll and F. E. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 434 (1943).

Other (14)

J. Fraunhofer, in Gesamelte Schriften, edited by F. Hommel, (Munich, 1887).

F. Kollmorgen, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 11, 220 (1916).

F. L. Jones and H. L. Homer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 34 (1941).

H. Schroeder, Z. Tech. Phys. 22, 38, 75 (1941).

F. H. Nicoll, RCA Rev. 6, 298 (1942).

F. H. Nicoll and F. E. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 434 (1943).

S. M. Thomsen, RCA Rev. 12, 143 (1951).

F. H. Nicoll, (RCA) US Patent # 2, 707, 899 (1955).

S. M. Thomsen, (RCA) US Patent # 2, 490, 662 (1949).

F. J. Nicoll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 241 (1952).

L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (Chapman and Hall, London, 1966), pp. 155, 165.

W. Vogel, Structure and Crystallization of Glasses (Pergamon, New York, 1971), pp. 60–80.

Gerald B. Carrier, (to be published).

Sebastiano F. Monaco, "Reflectance of an Inhomogeneous Thin Film," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 280 (1961).

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