Abstract

The foveal sensitivity to several near-infrared laser wavelengths was measured. It was found that the eye could respond to radiation at wavelengths at least as far as 1064 nm. A continuous 1064 nm laser source appeared red, but a 1060 nm pulsed laser source appeared green, which suggests the presence of second harmonic generation in the retina.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. von. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. Southall, 1924 (New York, Dover, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 68–71.
  2. C. F. Goodeve, “Relative luminosity in the extreme red,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 155, 664–683 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. R. Griffin, R. Hubbard, and G. Wald, “The sensitivity of the eye to infrared radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546–554 (1947).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. I. Pinegin, “The cone sensitivity of the eye in the region from λ = 302 μ to 950 μ, Probl. Physiol. Opt. 64, 11–16 (1947); see also C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS 47, 627 (1945).
  5. E. Lau and W. Leo, “Uber die Augenempfindlichkeit an der ultraroten Grenze,” Ann. Physik 2, 242–255 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, “Foveal sensitivity of the human eye in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 765–766 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebataev, and Yu. V. Troitskii, “Visual observation of infrared laser emission,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR) 48, 777–778 (1965). [Sov. Phys. -JETP 21, 513–514 (1975)].
  8. S. Fine and W. P. Hansen, “Optical second harmonic generation in biological systems,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2350–2353 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. H. Sliney and B. C. Freasier, “The evaluation of optical radiation hazards,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1–24 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. C. Thompson, “Stimulation of the retina with light fields of small size,” Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 50–54 (1953).
  11. H. W. Liebowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: deviation from fluctuations of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, “Retinal-temperature increases produced by intense light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 264–270, 1970.
    [Crossref]
  14. P. R. Lewis, “A theoretical interpretation of spectral sensitivity curves at long wavelengths,” J. Physiol. 130, 45–52, 1955.
  15. R. C. C. George, “The interplay of light and heat in bleaching rhodopsin,” J. Gen. Physiol. 35, 495–517, 1952.
    [Crossref]

1975 (1)

H. W. Liebowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, “Retinal-temperature increases produced by intense light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 264–270, 1970.
[Crossref]

1965 (2)

J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: deviation from fluctuations of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebataev, and Yu. V. Troitskii, “Visual observation of infrared laser emission,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR) 48, 777–778 (1965). [Sov. Phys. -JETP 21, 513–514 (1975)].

1963 (1)

1955 (1)

P. R. Lewis, “A theoretical interpretation of spectral sensitivity curves at long wavelengths,” J. Physiol. 130, 45–52, 1955.

1953 (1)

L. C. Thompson, “Stimulation of the retina with light fields of small size,” Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 50–54 (1953).

1952 (1)

R. C. C. George, “The interplay of light and heat in bleaching rhodopsin,” J. Gen. Physiol. 35, 495–517, 1952.
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

E. Lau and W. Leo, “Uber die Augenempfindlichkeit an der ultraroten Grenze,” Ann. Physik 2, 242–255 (1948).
[Crossref]

1947 (2)

N. I. Pinegin, “The cone sensitivity of the eye in the region from λ = 302 μ to 950 μ, Probl. Physiol. Opt. 64, 11–16 (1947); see also C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS 47, 627 (1945).

D. R. Griffin, R. Hubbard, and G. Wald, “The sensitivity of the eye to infrared radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546–554 (1947).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1936 (1)

C. F. Goodeve, “Relative luminosity in the extreme red,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 155, 664–683 (1936).
[Crossref]

Chebataev, V. P.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebataev, and Yu. V. Troitskii, “Visual observation of infrared laser emission,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR) 48, 777–778 (1965). [Sov. Phys. -JETP 21, 513–514 (1975)].

Fine, S.

Freasier, B. C.

George, R. C. C.

R. C. C. George, “The interplay of light and heat in bleaching rhodopsin,” J. Gen. Physiol. 35, 495–517, 1952.
[Crossref]

Goodeve, C. F.

C. F. Goodeve, “Relative luminosity in the extreme red,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 155, 664–683 (1936).
[Crossref]

Griffin, D. R.

Hansen, W. P.

Helmholtz, H. von.

H. von. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. Southall, 1924 (New York, Dover, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 68–71.

Hubbard, R.

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: deviation from fluctuations of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, E.

E. Lau and W. Leo, “Uber die Augenempfindlichkeit an der ultraroten Grenze,” Ann. Physik 2, 242–255 (1948).
[Crossref]

Leebeek, H. J.

Leo, W.

E. Lau and W. Leo, “Uber die Augenempfindlichkeit an der ultraroten Grenze,” Ann. Physik 2, 242–255 (1948).
[Crossref]

Lewis, P. R.

P. R. Lewis, “A theoretical interpretation of spectral sensitivity curves at long wavelengths,” J. Physiol. 130, 45–52, 1955.

Liebowitz, H. W.

H. W. Liebowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
[Crossref]

Mainster, M. A.

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, “Retinal-temperature increases produced by intense light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 264–270, 1970.
[Crossref]

Owens, D. A.

H. W. Liebowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
[Crossref]

Pinegin, N. I.

N. I. Pinegin, “The cone sensitivity of the eye in the region from λ = 302 μ to 950 μ, Probl. Physiol. Opt. 64, 11–16 (1947); see also C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS 47, 627 (1945).

Sliney, D. H.

Srebro, R.

J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: deviation from fluctuations of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, L. C.

L. C. Thompson, “Stimulation of the retina with light fields of small size,” Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 50–54 (1953).

Tips, J. H.

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, “Retinal-temperature increases produced by intense light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 264–270, 1970.
[Crossref]

Troitskii, Yu. V.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebataev, and Yu. V. Troitskii, “Visual observation of infrared laser emission,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR) 48, 777–778 (1965). [Sov. Phys. -JETP 21, 513–514 (1975)].

Vasilenko, L. S.

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebataev, and Yu. V. Troitskii, “Visual observation of infrared laser emission,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR) 48, 777–778 (1965). [Sov. Phys. -JETP 21, 513–514 (1975)].

Wald, G.

Walraven, P. L.

White, T. J.

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, “Retinal-temperature increases produced by intense light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 264–270, 1970.
[Crossref]

Wilson, P. W.

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, “Retinal-temperature increases produced by intense light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 264–270, 1970.
[Crossref]

Ann. Physik (1)

E. Lau and W. Leo, “Uber die Augenempfindlichkeit an der ultraroten Grenze,” Ann. Physik 2, 242–255 (1948).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Brit. Med. Bull. (1)

L. C. Thompson, “Stimulation of the retina with light fields of small size,” Brit. Med. Bull. 9, 50–54 (1953).

J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR) (1)

L. S. Vasilenko, V. P. Chebataev, and Yu. V. Troitskii, “Visual observation of infrared laser emission,” J. Exptl. Theoret. Phys. (USSR) 48, 777–778 (1965). [Sov. Phys. -JETP 21, 513–514 (1975)].

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

R. C. C. George, “The interplay of light and heat in bleaching rhodopsin,” J. Gen. Physiol. 35, 495–517, 1952.
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, and P. W. Wilson, “Retinal-temperature increases produced by intense light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 264–270, 1970.
[Crossref]

J. Physiol. (1)

P. R. Lewis, “A theoretical interpretation of spectral sensitivity curves at long wavelengths,” J. Physiol. 130, 45–52, 1955.

Probl. Physiol. Opt. (1)

N. I. Pinegin, “The cone sensitivity of the eye in the region from λ = 302 μ to 950 μ, Probl. Physiol. Opt. 64, 11–16 (1947); see also C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS 47, 627 (1945).

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

C. F. Goodeve, “Relative luminosity in the extreme red,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 155, 664–683 (1936).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

H. W. Liebowitz and D. A. Owens, “Anomalous myopias and the intermediate dark focus of accommodation,” Science 189, 646–648 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Krauskopf and R. Srebro, “Spectral sensitivity of color mechanisms: deviation from fluctuations of color appearance near threshold,” Science 150, 1477–1479 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. von. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, translated by J. P. Southall, 1924 (New York, Dover, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 68–71.

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Figures (1)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Spectral sensitivity curve for a point source viewed by the fovea. Solid line to 770 nm is CIE luminous efficacy, Vλ, function. The broken line beyond 770 nm is the extrapolated function proposed by Walraven and Leebeek6 based upon previous infrared visibility studies and absorption properties of water. Circles are data from this study, as plotted against lefthand ordinate.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Foveal visual thresholds of human subject with normal color vision for a 3 mm artificial pupil.a