Abstract

Polarized absorption and dye-laser excited fluorescence spectra of Nd<sup>3+</sup> in the Y<sup>3+</sup> site of yttrium orthovanadate at 85 and 300°K are presented and analyzed. The absence of allowed transitions and the unusual concentration of line strength into one transition in π polarization within a given line group is shown by the Judd-Ofelt theory to be a consequence of the <i>D</i><sub><i>2d</i></sub> symmetry of the site and ion placements in the unit cell which cause the <i>A</i><sup>7</sup><sub>±6</sub> odd-parity crystal-field coefficient to be dominant. An energy level scheme giving level positions, level identities, and observed transitions is presented. The ground state was found to be Γ<sub>7</sub>(µ = ± 3/2) with a <i>J</i><sup><i>z</i></sup>, composition of ∓ 1/2, ± 7/2, and ∓ 9/2. Linewidths and peak cross sections of the [Equation] transitions are also presented. The principal laser line in this group at 10640.9 ± 0.2 Å was found to be predominately π polarized and to have a cross section of 30 × 10<sup>-19</sup> cm<sup>2</sup>, which is 4.6 times larger than the laser transition of Nd<sup>3+</sup> in YAG.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.
  2. M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, Technical Report No. ECOM-74-0104-1 (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N. J.
  3. L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OS A Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.
  4. J. R. O'Conner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966).
  5. H. G. McKnight and L. R. Rothrock, "Research and Development Work for the Growth of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate," Technical Report No. ECOM 0022F, U.S. Army ECOM Contract No. DAAB07-72-C-0022, April 1973.
  6. E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).
  7. Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].
  8. A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).
  9. R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, "MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development," RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October 1969).
  10. N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D. C. (unpublished).
  11. B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
  12. H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).
  13. L. R. Rothrock and R. E. Wilder (work reported in Refs. 2 and 5).
  14. R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience, New York, 1963).
  15. K. H. Hellwege, Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) 4, 95 (1948).
  16. G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).
  17. J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).
  18. K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847 (1968).
  19. U. Ranon, Phys. Lett. A 28, 228 (1968).
  20. C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
  21. N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).
  22. J. L. Prather, Atomic Energy Levels in Crystals, Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) Monograph No. 19 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1961).
  23. J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).
  24. R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).
  25. R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, Technical Report No. AFML-TR-69-230 (December 1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.
  26. J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
  27. R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).

1974 (1)

R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).

1971 (2)

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).

E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).

1970 (2)

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).

N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).

1969 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

1968 (3)

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847 (1968).

U. Ranon, Phys. Lett. A 28, 228 (1968).

1967 (2)

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).

H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).

1966 (2)

J. R. O'Conner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966).

J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).

1964 (1)

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).

1962 (1)

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).

1961 (1)

J. L. Prather, Atomic Energy Levels in Crystals, Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) Monograph No. 19 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1961).

1948 (1)

K. H. Hellwege, Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) 4, 95 (1948).

AuCoin, T. R.

J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).

Bagdasarov, Kh. S.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Bass, M.

M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, Technical Report No. ECOM-74-0104-1 (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N. J.

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

Birnbaum, M.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OS A Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

Bogomolova, G. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Bolin, S. R.

H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).

Brecher, C.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).

DeShazer, L. G.

M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, Technical Report No. ECOM-74-0104-1 (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N. J.

E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OS A Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

Dess, H. M.

H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).

Detrio, J. A.

R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, Technical Report No. AFML-TR-69-230 (December 1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).

Dimmock, J. O.

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Dolan, V. L.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).

Farrar, R. T.

N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).

Ferralli, M. W.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).

Fincher, C. L.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OS A Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

Geusic, J. E.

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).

Goedertier, P. V.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, "MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development," RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October 1969).

Gualtieri, J. G.

J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).

Guha, J. K.

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

Harley, R. T.

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).

Hayes, W.

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).

Hellwege, K. H.

K. H. Hellwege, Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) 4, 95 (1948).

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Karayianis, N.

N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).

N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D. C. (unpublished).

Koningstein, J. A.

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).

Koster, G. F.

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Lempicki, A.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).

Li, L.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

Maunders, A.

E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).

McKnight, H. G.

H. G. McKnight and L. R. Rothrock, "Research and Development Work for the Growth of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate," Technical Report No. ECOM 0022F, U.S. Army ECOM Contract No. DAAB07-72-C-0022, April 1973.

Morrison, C. A.

N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D. C. (unpublished).

O'Conner, J. R.

J. R. O'Conner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966).

Peters, T.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).

Popov, V. I.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Prather, J. L.

J. L. Prather, Atomic Energy Levels in Crystals, Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) Monograph No. 19 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1961).

Pressley, R. J.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, "MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development," RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October 1969).

Rajnak, K.

K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847 (1968).

Rang, R. C.

R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).

Ranon, U.

M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, Technical Report No. ECOM-74-0104-1 (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N. J.

U. Ranon, Phys. Lett. A 28, 228 (1968).

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

Reed, E. D.

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

Riley, R.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).

Rothrock, L. R.

H. G. McKnight and L. R. Rothrock, "Research and Development Work for the Growth of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate," Technical Report No. ECOM 0022F, U.S. Army ECOM Contract No. DAAB07-72-C-0022, April 1973.

L. R. Rothrock and R. E. Wilder (work reported in Refs. 2 and 5).

Samelson, H.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).

Smith, S. R. P.

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).

Statz, H.

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Tucker, A. W.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OS A Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

Ware, D. M.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).

Weakliem, H.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, "MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development," RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October 1969).

Wheeler, R. G.

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Wilder, R. E.

L. R. Rothrock and R. E. Wilder (work reported in Refs. 2 and 5).

Wortman, D. E.

N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D. C. (unpublished).

Wyckoff, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience, New York, 1963).

Yaney, P. P.

R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, Technical Report No. AFML-TR-69-230 (December 1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.

R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).

Ziegler, R. E.

R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, Technical Report No. AFML-TR-69-230 (December 1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.

Other (27)

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, Technical Report No. ECOM-74-0104-1 (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N. J.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OS A Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

J. R. O'Conner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966).

H. G. McKnight and L. R. Rothrock, "Research and Development Work for the Growth of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate," Technical Report No. ECOM 0022F, U.S. Army ECOM Contract No. DAAB07-72-C-0022, April 1973.

E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, "MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development," RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October 1969).

N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D. C. (unpublished).

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).

H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).

L. R. Rothrock and R. E. Wilder (work reported in Refs. 2 and 5).

R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience, New York, 1963).

K. H. Hellwege, Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) 4, 95 (1948).

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).

K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847 (1968).

U. Ranon, Phys. Lett. A 28, 228 (1968).

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).

N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).

J. L. Prather, Atomic Energy Levels in Crystals, Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) Monograph No. 19 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1961).

J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).

R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).

R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, Technical Report No. AFML-TR-69-230 (December 1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).

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