Abstract

Polarized absorption and dye-laser excited fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ in the Y3+ site of yttrium orthovanadate at 85 and 300°K are presented and analyzed. The absence of allowed transitions and the unusual concentration of line strength into one transition in π polarization within a given line group is shown by the Judd-Ofelt theory to be a consequence of the D2d symmetry of the site and ion placements in the unit cell which cause the A±67 odd-parity crystal-field coefficient to be dominant. An energy level scheme giving level positions, level identities, and observed transitions is presented. The ground state was found to be Γ7(μ = ±3/2) with a Jz composition of ∓1/2, ±7/2, and ∓9/2. Linewidths and peak cross sections of the 4F3/24I11/2 transitions are also presented. The principal laser line in this group at 10 640.9 ± 0.2 Å was found to be predominately π polarized and to have a cross section of 30 × 10−19 cm2, which is 4.6 times larger than the laser transition of Nd3+ in YAG.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.
  2. M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N.J.
  3. L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.
  4. J. R. O’Conner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. G. McKnight and L. R. Rothrock, “Research and Development Work for the Growth of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate,” , April1973.
  6. E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).
  7. Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].
  8. A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).
  9. R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development,” RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October1969).
  10. N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D.C. (unpublished).
  11. B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).
  13. L. R. Rothrock and R. E. Wilder (work reported in Refs. 2 and 5).
  14. R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience, New York, 1963).
  15. K. H. Hellwege, Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) 4, 95 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).
  17. J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  19. U. Ranon, Phys. Lett. A 28, 228 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  21. N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. L. Prather, Atomic Energy Levels in Crystals, Natl. Bur. Stds. (U.S.) Monograph No. 19 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961).
  23. J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).
  25. R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, (December1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.
  26. J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).
    [Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).

1971 (2)

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).
[Crossref]

E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).

1970 (2)

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
[Crossref]

N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

1968 (3)

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847 (1968).
[Crossref]

U. Ranon, Phys. Lett. A 28, 228 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (2)

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
[Crossref]

H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).

1966 (2)

J. R. O’Conner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

K. H. Hellwege, Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) 4, 95 (1948).
[Crossref]

AuCoin, T. R.

J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bagdasarov, Kh. S.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Bass, M.

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N.J.

Birnbaum, M.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

Bogomolova, G. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Bolin, S. R.

H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).

Brecher, C.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
[Crossref]

DeShazer, L. G.

E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N.J.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

Dess, H. M.

H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).

Detrio, J. A.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, (December1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.

Dimmock, J. O.

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Dolan, V. L.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
[Crossref]

Farrar, R. T.

N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).
[Crossref]

Ferralli, M. W.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
[Crossref]

Fincher, C. L.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

Geusic, J. E.

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).
[Crossref]

Goedertier, P. V.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development,” RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October1969).

Gualtieri, J. G.

J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).
[Crossref]

Guha, J. K.

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

Harley, R. T.

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hayes, W.

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hellwege, K. H.

K. H. Hellwege, Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) 4, 95 (1948).
[Crossref]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[Crossref]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Karayianis, N.

N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).
[Crossref]

N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D.C. (unpublished).

Koningstein, J. A.

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).
[Crossref]

Koster, G. F.

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Lempicki, A.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

Maunders, E. A.

E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).

McKnight, H. G.

H. G. McKnight and L. R. Rothrock, “Research and Development Work for the Growth of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate,” , April1973.

Morrison, C. A.

N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D.C. (unpublished).

O’Conner, J. R.

J. R. O’Conner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966).
[Crossref]

Peters, T.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
[Crossref]

Popov, V. I.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Prather, J. L.

J. L. Prather, Atomic Energy Levels in Crystals, Natl. Bur. Stds. (U.S.) Monograph No. 19 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961).

Pressley, R. J.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development,” RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October1969).

Rajnak, K.

K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847 (1968).
[Crossref]

Rang, R. C.

R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).

Ranon, U.

U. Ranon, Phys. Lett. A 28, 228 (1968).
[Crossref]

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N.J.

Reed, E. D.

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

Riley, R.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
[Crossref]

Rothrock, L. R.

H. G. McKnight and L. R. Rothrock, “Research and Development Work for the Growth of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate,” , April1973.

L. R. Rothrock and R. E. Wilder (work reported in Refs. 2 and 5).

Samelson, H.

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. R. P.

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).
[Crossref]

Statz, H.

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Tucker, A. W.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

Ware, D. M.

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
[Crossref]

Weakliem, H.

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development,” RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October1969).

Wheeler, R. G.

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

Wilder, R. E.

L. R. Rothrock and R. E. Wilder (work reported in Refs. 2 and 5).

Wortman, D. E.

N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D.C. (unpublished).

Wyckoff, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience, New York, 1963).

Yaney, P. P.

R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, (December1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.

Ziegler, R. E.

R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, (December1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.

Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) (1)

K. H. Hellwege, Ann. Phys. (Leipz.) 4, 95 (1948).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. R. O’Conner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

R. C. Rang and P. P. Yaney, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 818 (1974); R. C. Rang, M. S. thesis (University of Dayton, 1974) (unpublished).

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, G. A. Bogomolova, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. I. Popov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 180, 1347 (1968) [Sov. Phys. -Dokl. 13, 516 (1969)].

Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, G. A. Bogomolova, and L. Li, Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Neorgan. Mater. 5, 673 (1969).

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

J. A. Detrio, M. W. Ferralli, P. P. Yaney, D. M. Ware, and V. L. Dolan, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 4372 (1970).
[Crossref]

K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847 (1968).
[Crossref]

N. Karayianis and R. T. Farrar, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3436 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. G. Gualtieri and T. R. AuCoin, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4348 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

E. A. Maunders and L. G. DeShazer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 684 (1971).

Phys. Lett. A (1)

U. Ranon, Phys. Lett. A 28, 228 (1968).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (3)

C. Brecher, H. Samelson, A. Lempicki, R. Riley, and T. Peters, Phys. Rev. 155, 178 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 136, A711 (1964).
[Crossref]

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

R. T. Harley, W. Hayes, and S. R. P. Smith, Solid State Commun. 9, 515 (1971).
[Crossref]

Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME (1)

H. M. Dess and S. R. Bolin, Trans. Metal. Soc. AIME 239, 359 (1967).

Other (11)

L. R. Rothrock and R. E. Wilder (work reported in Refs. 2 and 5).

R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience, New York, 1963).

G. F. Koster, J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, and H. Statz, Properties of the Thirty-Two Point Groups (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

R. J. Pressley, P. V. Goedertier, and H. Weakliem, “MBT 70 Laser Materials Research and Exploratory Development,” RCA Lab, Princeton, N. J., Report (October1969).

N. Karayianis, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Harry Diamond Laboratories, Washington, D.C. (unpublished).

H. G. McKnight and L. R. Rothrock, “Research and Development Work for the Growth of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthovanadate,” , April1973.

L. G. DeShazer, M. Bass, U. Ranon, J. K. Guha, and E. D. Reed, Proceedings of the Eight International Quantum Electron Conference, June 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), pp. 7 and 8.

M. Bass, L. G. DeShazer, and U. Ranon, (October, 1974), U. S. Army Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N.J.

L. G. DeShazer, A. W. Tucker, M. Birnbaum, and C. L. Fincher, 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, New York, 1975), Post Deadline Paper No. 4.10.

R. E. Ziegler, P. P. Yaney, and J. A. Detrio, (December1969), Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB.

J. L. Prather, Atomic Energy Levels in Crystals, Natl. Bur. Stds. (U.S.) Monograph No. 19 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961).

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Figures (6)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Polarized absorption spectra of the 4I9/22P1/2 transitions of Nd: YVO4 at ~300 °K. The letters a, b, c, and e denote the crystal-field levels of the 4I9/2 state. The c axis was transverse to the observation axis.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Polarized absorption spectra of the 4I9/24F3/2 transitions of Nd: YVO4 at two temperatures. The peak of the flat topped π line at ~300 °K was determined to be at 18.5 cm−1. See text. Crystal oriented as in Fig. 1.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Dye-laser-excited, polarized fluorescence spectra of the 4F3/24I9/2 transitions of Nd: YVO4 at two temperatures. The gain factors ×1, etc., apply only within the given temperature. The letters a′ and b′ denote the crystal-field levels of the 4F3/2 state while the unprimed letters identify the levels belonging to the 4I9/2 state. The inset (i) shows the self-absorption which occurs when the dye-laser beam is moved back from the observed surface. See text. Crystal oriented as in Fig. 1.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Dye-laser-excited polarized fluorescence spectra of the 4F3/24I11/2 transitions of Nd: YVO4 at two temperatures. The gain factors, ×1, etc., apply only within the given temperature. The letters a′ and b′ denote the crystal-field levels of the 4F3/2 state while the unprimed letters identify the levels belonging to the 4I11/2 state. Crystal oriented as in Fig. 1.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Tetragonal unit cell ( D 4 h 19) of yttrium vanadate after Wyckoff (Ref. 14). The cell contains four YVO4 molecules. Eight face-oxygen ions associated with four vanadium-oxygen tetrahedra that are located at the four off-center face positions of vanadium have been omitted from the cell to enhance clarity.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Energy levels (±1 cm−1) of selected states of Nd: YVO4 at room temperature showing transitions resolved at ~85 °K. The approximate positions of the levels at ~85 °K are shown as short dashed lines. (a) This is the ~85 °K value. See Table III.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Transitions permitted by the 3-j symbol in Eq. (3) for the 4I9/24F3/2 transitions of Nd3+ in D2d symmetry.a

Tables Icon

TABLE II Electric-dipole selection rules in D2d symmetry. The quantities in parentheses are the crystal-field quantum numbers |μ|.

Tables Icon

TABLE III Observed transitions of ~1 at. % Nd3+ in YVO4.a Values given to 0.1 cm−1 are accurate to ±0.5 cm−1 or better. All other values are to ±1 cm−1.

Tables Icon

TABLE IV Parameters for 4F3/24I11/2 transitions of Nd: YVO4 at room temperature.a

Equations (22)

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f J J = t = 2 ,     4 ,     6 ν T t ( 2 J + 1 ) - 1 × [ τ S L ] J U ( t ) [ τ S L ] J 2 ,
f α β = ν α β | t ( 2 t + 1 ) U ( t ) k Ξ ( k , t ) × q , ρ ( - 1 ) q + ρ ρ ( 1 ) * A q k × ϒ q + ρ ( t ) ( 1 t k ρ - ( q + ρ ) q ) | 2 , t = 2 ,     4 ,     6 ,             k = 1 ,     3 ,     5 ,     7 ,             q k ,             ρ = 0 , ± 1 ,
ϒ q + ρ ( t ) = ξ ξ C α * ( J z ) C β ( J z ) ( - 1 ) J - J z ( J t J - J z q + ρ J z ) ,
V c A q k ( J k J - J z q J z ) ,
J z = μ + ξ p μ ( mod p ) ,
α μ = ξ C α ( μ J z ) J z ,
S α μ = S α μ .
ψ J z ( x , y , z ) = ψ J z ( - x , - y , - z ) = ( - 1 ) Σ i l i ψ J z ( x , y , z )
D ( 2 π / p ) ψ J z ( r , θ , φ ) = ψ J z ( r , θ , φ + 2 π / p ) = e i 2 π J z / p ψ J z ( r , θ , φ ) ,
μ = J z ± 1 2 p + ξ p .
J z = ( μ + 1 2 p ) ( mod p ) .
ξ = 0 ,     1 ,     - 1 ,     2 ,     - 2 ,     3 ,     - 3 , , J z = 1 2 ,     5 2 ,     - 3 2 ,     9 2 ,     - 7 2 ,     13 2 ,     - 11 2 , ;
ξ = 0 ,     1 ,     - 1 ,     2 ,     - 2 ,     3 ,     - 3 , , J z = - 1 2 ,     + 3 2 ,     - 5 2 ,     + 7 2 ,     - 9 2 ,     11 2 ,     - 13 2 , .
ξ = 0 ,     1 ,     - 1 ,     2 ,     - 2 , , J z = 1 2 ,     9 2 ,     - 7 2 ,     17 2 ,     - 15 2 , ;
ξ = 0 ,     1 ,     - 1 ,     - 2 ,     - 3 , , J z = 7 2 ,     15 2 ,     - 1 2 ,     - 9 2 ,     - 17 2 , ;
ξ = 0 ,     1 ,     - 1 ,     2 ,     - 2 , , J z = 3 2 ,     11 2 ,     - 5 2 ,     19 2 ,     - 13 2 , ;
ξ = 0 ,     1 ,     - 1 ,     - 2 ,     - 3 , , J z = 5 2 ,     13 2 ,     - 3 2 ,     - 11 2 ,     - 19 2 , .
J z = J z + ρ + q ,
J z = J z + ρ ± 2             and             J z = J z + ρ ± 6.
Γ 7 ( J z = 9 2 ) π Γ 6             and             σ Γ 7
Δ μ = ( ρ + q ) mod 4 ,             q = ± 2 , ± 6.
A 0 2 = j ( e 2 Q j r j 3 ) 3 z j 2 - r j 2 r j 2 ,