Abstract

The recent need in space astronomy for wide-field telescopes having the best transmission and exempt from the chromatic aberration in uv, the severe conditions of the aspheric surface quality for the shortest wavelength, leads to new developments both in the theory and design of those surfaces. A two-surface all-reflective Schmidt telescope is analyzed (1) with Fermat’s principle and (2) with Abbe sine condition. A dioptric elasticity method is presented to aspherize the primary mirror which is a nonaxisymmetric surface. Experimental results are given for an ƒ/1.5, 180 mm focal length all-reflective Schmidt.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 55, 6, 433 (1943).
  2. E. H. Linfoot, Recent Advances in Optics (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1955), p. 277.
  3. C. G. Wynne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 5, 572 (1969).
  4. K. Schwarzschild, "Untersuchung zur geometrischen Optik," Abhandlungen der Königl, Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Math. -Phys. Kl. 4, (1905–1906), Nos. 1, 2, 3. Other references in Wynne paper (Ref. 3).
  5. B. Schmidt, Zentral Zeit. f. Opt. Mech. 52, 2 (1931).
  6. C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 59, 41 (1947).
  7. F. E. Ross, Astrophys. J. 92, 400 (1940).
  8. J. G. Baker, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 82, 323 (1940).
  9. R. D. Sigler, Appl. Opt, 14, 2302 (1975).
  10. G. Lemaître, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 305 (1975).
  11. D. O. Hendrix and W. H. Christie, Sci. Am. 8, (1939).
  12. M. Migeotte, Ciel Terre 64, 145 (1948).
  13. L. C. Epstein, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 79, 132 (1967).
  14. L. C. Epstein, Sky Telesc. 33, 204 (1967).
  15. L. C. Epstein, Appl. Opt. 12, 4, 926 (1973).
  16. G. Courtès, "New Techniques in Space Astronomy," Symposium IAU N°41, pp. 273–301, Eds. Labuhn and Lüst (1971).
  17. K. Henize, "The Role of Surveys in Space Astronomy," in Optical Telescope Technology, NASA-SP-233 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D. C. 1970).
  18. G. Monnet, R. Zaharia, and G. Lemaitre, "Programme FAUST," Publication C.N.E. S., FAUST-PJ-02-70 (1970).
  19. D. E. Oinen, "A Correcting Surface for Two Surface All Reflecting Schmidt Lens," Publ. Eastman Kodak Company, 901 Elmgrove Road, Rochester, N. Y. 14650.
  20. D. Korsh, Appl. Opt. 13, 9, 2005 (1974).
  21. G. Lemaître, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 276, 145 (1973).
  22. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 210.
  23. H. Chrétien, in Calcul des Combinaisons Optiques (J. and R. Sennac, Paris, 2958), p. 377.
  24. A. Baranne, "Le Télescope Ritchey-Chrétien de 3, 60m." Publ. Obs. Hte-Provence 8, 22 (1966).
  25. B. Schmidt, Mitt. Hamburg Sternw. Bergedorf 7, 36, 15 (1932).
  26. R. Schorr, Mitt. Hamburg Sternw. Bergedorf 7, 42, 175 (1936).
  27. R. Schorr, Z. Instrum. Kde, 56, 336 (1936). Another paper (Ref. 28) gives details on the elasticity method that was used by Schmidt.
  28. R. Schorr, Astron. Nachr. 258, 45 (1936). This paper was translated into English by N. U. Mayall (Ref. 29).
  29. N. U. Mayall, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 58, 282 (1946).
  30. A. Couder, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 210, 327 (1940).
  31. B. A. J. Clark, J. Astron. Soc. Victoria 6, 76 (1964).
  32. E. Everhart, Appl. Opt. 5, 713 (1966).
  33. F. Cooke, Appl. Opt. 11, 222 (1972).
  34. G. Lemaître, Appl. Opt. 7, 1630 (1972).
  35. G. Lemaître, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 305 (1975).
  36. G. Lemaître, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 361 (1974).
  37. S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, "Théorie des Plaques et Coques," Edt. Béranger, Paris, 1961), p. 282.
  38. A. Maréchal, Rev. Opt. 26, 257 (1947).
  39. M. Cohendet, Document Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale Opt./FAUST 01, (1972).
  40. R. K. Dakin and E. G. Loewen, Opt. Spectra, October, p. 29 (1975).

1975 (4)

R. D. Sigler, Appl. Opt, 14, 2302 (1975).

G. Lemaître, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 305 (1975).

G. Lemaître, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 305 (1975).

R. K. Dakin and E. G. Loewen, Opt. Spectra, October, p. 29 (1975).

1974 (2)

G. Lemaître, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 361 (1974).

D. Korsh, Appl. Opt. 13, 9, 2005 (1974).

1973 (2)

G. Lemaître, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 276, 145 (1973).

L. C. Epstein, Appl. Opt. 12, 4, 926 (1973).

1972 (3)

M. Cohendet, Document Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale Opt./FAUST 01, (1972).

F. Cooke, Appl. Opt. 11, 222 (1972).

G. Lemaître, Appl. Opt. 7, 1630 (1972).

1971 (1)

G. Courtès, "New Techniques in Space Astronomy," Symposium IAU N°41, pp. 273–301, Eds. Labuhn and Lüst (1971).

1970 (2)

K. Henize, "The Role of Surveys in Space Astronomy," in Optical Telescope Technology, NASA-SP-233 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D. C. 1970).

G. Monnet, R. Zaharia, and G. Lemaitre, "Programme FAUST," Publication C.N.E. S., FAUST-PJ-02-70 (1970).

1969 (1)

C. G. Wynne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 5, 572 (1969).

1967 (2)

L. C. Epstein, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 79, 132 (1967).

L. C. Epstein, Sky Telesc. 33, 204 (1967).

1966 (2)

E. Everhart, Appl. Opt. 5, 713 (1966).

A. Baranne, "Le Télescope Ritchey-Chrétien de 3, 60m." Publ. Obs. Hte-Provence 8, 22 (1966).

1964 (1)

B. A. J. Clark, J. Astron. Soc. Victoria 6, 76 (1964).

1961 (1)

S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, "Théorie des Plaques et Coques," Edt. Béranger, Paris, 1961), p. 282.

1948 (1)

M. Migeotte, Ciel Terre 64, 145 (1948).

1947 (2)

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 59, 41 (1947).

A. Maréchal, Rev. Opt. 26, 257 (1947).

1946 (1)

N. U. Mayall, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 58, 282 (1946).

1943 (1)

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 55, 6, 433 (1943).

1940 (3)

F. E. Ross, Astrophys. J. 92, 400 (1940).

J. G. Baker, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 82, 323 (1940).

A. Couder, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 210, 327 (1940).

1939 (1)

D. O. Hendrix and W. H. Christie, Sci. Am. 8, (1939).

1936 (3)

R. Schorr, Mitt. Hamburg Sternw. Bergedorf 7, 42, 175 (1936).

R. Schorr, Z. Instrum. Kde, 56, 336 (1936). Another paper (Ref. 28) gives details on the elasticity method that was used by Schmidt.

R. Schorr, Astron. Nachr. 258, 45 (1936). This paper was translated into English by N. U. Mayall (Ref. 29).

1932 (1)

B. Schmidt, Mitt. Hamburg Sternw. Bergedorf 7, 36, 15 (1932).

1931 (1)

B. Schmidt, Zentral Zeit. f. Opt. Mech. 52, 2 (1931).

Baker, J. G.

J. G. Baker, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 82, 323 (1940).

Baranne, A.

A. Baranne, "Le Télescope Ritchey-Chrétien de 3, 60m." Publ. Obs. Hte-Provence 8, 22 (1966).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 210.

Burch, C. R.

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 59, 41 (1947).

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 55, 6, 433 (1943).

Chrétien, H.

H. Chrétien, in Calcul des Combinaisons Optiques (J. and R. Sennac, Paris, 2958), p. 377.

Christie, W. H.

D. O. Hendrix and W. H. Christie, Sci. Am. 8, (1939).

Clark, B. A. J.

B. A. J. Clark, J. Astron. Soc. Victoria 6, 76 (1964).

Cohendet, M.

M. Cohendet, Document Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale Opt./FAUST 01, (1972).

Cooke, F.

F. Cooke, Appl. Opt. 11, 222 (1972).

Couder, A.

A. Couder, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 210, 327 (1940).

Courtès, G.

G. Courtès, "New Techniques in Space Astronomy," Symposium IAU N°41, pp. 273–301, Eds. Labuhn and Lüst (1971).

Dakin, R. K.

R. K. Dakin and E. G. Loewen, Opt. Spectra, October, p. 29 (1975).

Epstein, L. C.

L. C. Epstein, Appl. Opt. 12, 4, 926 (1973).

L. C. Epstein, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 79, 132 (1967).

L. C. Epstein, Sky Telesc. 33, 204 (1967).

Everhart, E.

E. Everhart, Appl. Opt. 5, 713 (1966).

Hendrix, D. O.

D. O. Hendrix and W. H. Christie, Sci. Am. 8, (1939).

Henize, K.

K. Henize, "The Role of Surveys in Space Astronomy," in Optical Telescope Technology, NASA-SP-233 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D. C. 1970).

Korsh, D.

D. Korsh, Appl. Opt. 13, 9, 2005 (1974).

Lemaitre, G.

G. Monnet, R. Zaharia, and G. Lemaitre, "Programme FAUST," Publication C.N.E. S., FAUST-PJ-02-70 (1970).

Lemaître, G.

G. Lemaître, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 305 (1975).

G. Lemaître, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 305 (1975).

G. Lemaître, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 361 (1974).

G. Lemaître, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 276, 145 (1973).

G. Lemaître, Appl. Opt. 7, 1630 (1972).

Linfoot, E. H.

E. H. Linfoot, Recent Advances in Optics (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1955), p. 277.

Loewen, E. G.

R. K. Dakin and E. G. Loewen, Opt. Spectra, October, p. 29 (1975).

Maréchal, A.

A. Maréchal, Rev. Opt. 26, 257 (1947).

Mayall, N. U.

N. U. Mayall, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 58, 282 (1946).

Migeotte, M.

M. Migeotte, Ciel Terre 64, 145 (1948).

Monnet, G.

G. Monnet, R. Zaharia, and G. Lemaitre, "Programme FAUST," Publication C.N.E. S., FAUST-PJ-02-70 (1970).

Oinen, D. E.

D. E. Oinen, "A Correcting Surface for Two Surface All Reflecting Schmidt Lens," Publ. Eastman Kodak Company, 901 Elmgrove Road, Rochester, N. Y. 14650.

Ross, F. E.

F. E. Ross, Astrophys. J. 92, 400 (1940).

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, Mitt. Hamburg Sternw. Bergedorf 7, 36, 15 (1932).

B. Schmidt, Zentral Zeit. f. Opt. Mech. 52, 2 (1931).

Schorr, R.

R. Schorr, Mitt. Hamburg Sternw. Bergedorf 7, 42, 175 (1936).

R. Schorr, Z. Instrum. Kde, 56, 336 (1936). Another paper (Ref. 28) gives details on the elasticity method that was used by Schmidt.

R. Schorr, Astron. Nachr. 258, 45 (1936). This paper was translated into English by N. U. Mayall (Ref. 29).

Schwarzschild, K.

K. Schwarzschild, "Untersuchung zur geometrischen Optik," Abhandlungen der Königl, Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Math. -Phys. Kl. 4, (1905–1906), Nos. 1, 2, 3. Other references in Wynne paper (Ref. 3).

Sigler, R. D.

R. D. Sigler, Appl. Opt, 14, 2302 (1975).

Timoshenko, S.

S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, "Théorie des Plaques et Coques," Edt. Béranger, Paris, 1961), p. 282.

Woinowsky-Krieger, S.

S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, "Théorie des Plaques et Coques," Edt. Béranger, Paris, 1961), p. 282.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 210.

Wynne, C. G.

C. G. Wynne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 5, 572 (1969).

Zaharia, R.

G. Monnet, R. Zaharia, and G. Lemaitre, "Programme FAUST," Publication C.N.E. S., FAUST-PJ-02-70 (1970).

Publ. Obs. Hte-Provence (1)

A. Baranne, "Le Télescope Ritchey-Chrétien de 3, 60m." Publ. Obs. Hte-Provence 8, 22 (1966).

Other (39)

B. Schmidt, Mitt. Hamburg Sternw. Bergedorf 7, 36, 15 (1932).

R. Schorr, Mitt. Hamburg Sternw. Bergedorf 7, 42, 175 (1936).

R. Schorr, Z. Instrum. Kde, 56, 336 (1936). Another paper (Ref. 28) gives details on the elasticity method that was used by Schmidt.

R. Schorr, Astron. Nachr. 258, 45 (1936). This paper was translated into English by N. U. Mayall (Ref. 29).

N. U. Mayall, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 58, 282 (1946).

A. Couder, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 210, 327 (1940).

B. A. J. Clark, J. Astron. Soc. Victoria 6, 76 (1964).

E. Everhart, Appl. Opt. 5, 713 (1966).

F. Cooke, Appl. Opt. 11, 222 (1972).

G. Lemaître, Appl. Opt. 7, 1630 (1972).

G. Lemaître, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 305 (1975).

G. Lemaître, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 361 (1974).

S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, "Théorie des Plaques et Coques," Edt. Béranger, Paris, 1961), p. 282.

A. Maréchal, Rev. Opt. 26, 257 (1947).

M. Cohendet, Document Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale Opt./FAUST 01, (1972).

R. K. Dakin and E. G. Loewen, Opt. Spectra, October, p. 29 (1975).

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 55, 6, 433 (1943).

E. H. Linfoot, Recent Advances in Optics (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1955), p. 277.

C. G. Wynne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 5, 572 (1969).

K. Schwarzschild, "Untersuchung zur geometrischen Optik," Abhandlungen der Königl, Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Math. -Phys. Kl. 4, (1905–1906), Nos. 1, 2, 3. Other references in Wynne paper (Ref. 3).

B. Schmidt, Zentral Zeit. f. Opt. Mech. 52, 2 (1931).

C. R. Burch, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 59, 41 (1947).

F. E. Ross, Astrophys. J. 92, 400 (1940).

J. G. Baker, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 82, 323 (1940).

R. D. Sigler, Appl. Opt, 14, 2302 (1975).

G. Lemaître, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 305 (1975).

D. O. Hendrix and W. H. Christie, Sci. Am. 8, (1939).

M. Migeotte, Ciel Terre 64, 145 (1948).

L. C. Epstein, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 79, 132 (1967).

L. C. Epstein, Sky Telesc. 33, 204 (1967).

L. C. Epstein, Appl. Opt. 12, 4, 926 (1973).

G. Courtès, "New Techniques in Space Astronomy," Symposium IAU N°41, pp. 273–301, Eds. Labuhn and Lüst (1971).

K. Henize, "The Role of Surveys in Space Astronomy," in Optical Telescope Technology, NASA-SP-233 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D. C. 1970).

G. Monnet, R. Zaharia, and G. Lemaitre, "Programme FAUST," Publication C.N.E. S., FAUST-PJ-02-70 (1970).

D. E. Oinen, "A Correcting Surface for Two Surface All Reflecting Schmidt Lens," Publ. Eastman Kodak Company, 901 Elmgrove Road, Rochester, N. Y. 14650.

D. Korsh, Appl. Opt. 13, 9, 2005 (1974).

G. Lemaître, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 276, 145 (1973).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 210.

H. Chrétien, in Calcul des Combinaisons Optiques (J. and R. Sennac, Paris, 2958), p. 377.

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