Abstract

Two mixed-integration processors for processing coherent imaging radar data are analyzed and compared. These two optical processors reduce the deleterious speckle effects associated with a fully coherent imaging system. However, the mixed-integration process reduces the achievable resolution. The discrete frequency-plane mixed-integration processor subdivides the frequency plane into <i>M</i> × <i>N</i> cells, processes each cell coherently, and incoherently sums the individual outputs. The scanning frequency plane mixed-integration processor continuously scans the frequency plane with an aperture that is 1/<i>M</i> × 1/<i>N</i> times the size of the signal spectrum. It is shown that the scanning processor is much more effective at reducing the effects of speckle while achieving comparable resolution.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. O. Harger, Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems, Theory and Design (Academic, New York, 1970).
  2. W. M. Brown and L. J. Porcello, "An Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Spectrum, 5, 52–62 (1969).
  3. W. M. Brown, "Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Trans. AES AES-3, 217–229 (1967).
  4. E. N. Leith, "Quasi-Holographic Techniques in the Micro-wave Region," Proc. IEEE 59, 1305–1318 (1971).
  5. Internal memorandum and private conversations between the author and Dr. B. P. Hildebrand and Dr. C. J. Palermo.
  6. C. J. Palermo, "Theory of Stochastic Delays," Ph.D. thesis (University Microfilms Inc., Document No. 64–868 (1963) (unpublished.
  7. L. J. Porcello, N. G. Massey, R. B. Innes, and J. M. Marks, "Diversity and Mixed-Integration Processing in Synthetic-Aperture Radar," Fourteenth Annual Triservice Radar Symposium Record, Vol. II, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 114–142, October (1968) (SECRET).
  8. J. S. Zelenka and J. M. Marks, "Optically Processing Hologram Radar Data," Fifteenth Annual Tri-Service Radar Symposium Record, WRL, University of Michigan, 2412-3-X, (1969).
  9. L. J. Porcello, "Speckle reduction in synthetic-aperture Radars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1305–1311 (1976) (following paper).
  10. J. I. Marcum and P. Swerling, "Studies of Target Detection by Pulsed Radar," Trans. Infor. Theory IT-6, 59–308(1960).
  11. R. K. Raney, "Quadratic Filter Theory and Partially Coherent Optical Systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1149–1154 (1969).
  12. W. A. Penn, Signal Fidelity in Radar Processing," IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-6, 204–218 (1962).
  13. J. W. Goodman, "Statistical properties of speckle in monochromatic light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1145–1150 (1976) (this issue).
  14. R. W. Lewis, "Redundancy in Coherent Imaging Systems," Ph.D. thesis (University of Michigan, January, 1973) (unpublished) (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., Order No. 73–24619).
  15. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  16. W. M. Brown and C. J. Palermo, Random Processes, Communications, and Radar (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).
  17. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).
  18. W. B. Davenport, Jr., and W. J. Root, An Introduction to the Theory of Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958).
  19. W. M. Brown, Analysis of Linear Time-Invariant Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).
  20. R. R. Goldberg, Fourier Transforms (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1961).
  21. B. P. Hildebrand, "Bounds on the Modulation Transfer Function of Optical Systems in Incoherent Illumination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 12–13 (1966).
  22. W. Lukosz, "Ubertragung Nicht-negativer Signale Durch Lineare Filter," Opt. Acta 9, 335 (1962).

1976 (2)

1969 (2)

R. K. Raney, "Quadratic Filter Theory and Partially Coherent Optical Systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1149–1154 (1969).

W. M. Brown and L. J. Porcello, "An Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Spectrum, 5, 52–62 (1969).

1967 (1)

W. M. Brown, "Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Trans. AES AES-3, 217–229 (1967).

1966 (1)

1962 (1)

W. Lukosz, "Ubertragung Nicht-negativer Signale Durch Lineare Filter," Opt. Acta 9, 335 (1962).

1960 (1)

J. I. Marcum and P. Swerling, "Studies of Target Detection by Pulsed Radar," Trans. Infor. Theory IT-6, 59–308(1960).

Brown, W. M.

W. M. Brown and L. J. Porcello, "An Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Spectrum, 5, 52–62 (1969).

W. M. Brown, "Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Trans. AES AES-3, 217–229 (1967).

W. M. Brown, Analysis of Linear Time-Invariant Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

W. M. Brown and C. J. Palermo, Random Processes, Communications, and Radar (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

Davenport, Jr., W. B.

W. B. Davenport, Jr., and W. J. Root, An Introduction to the Theory of Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958).

Goldberg, R. R.

R. R. Goldberg, Fourier Transforms (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1961).

Goodman, J. W.

Harger, R. O.

R. O. Harger, Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems, Theory and Design (Academic, New York, 1970).

Hildebrand, B. P.

Hildebrand, Dr. B. P.

Internal memorandum and private conversations between the author and Dr. B. P. Hildebrand and Dr. C. J. Palermo.

Innes, R. B.

L. J. Porcello, N. G. Massey, R. B. Innes, and J. M. Marks, "Diversity and Mixed-Integration Processing in Synthetic-Aperture Radar," Fourteenth Annual Triservice Radar Symposium Record, Vol. II, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 114–142, October (1968) (SECRET).

Leith, E. N.

E. N. Leith, "Quasi-Holographic Techniques in the Micro-wave Region," Proc. IEEE 59, 1305–1318 (1971).

Lewis, R. W.

R. W. Lewis, "Redundancy in Coherent Imaging Systems," Ph.D. thesis (University of Michigan, January, 1973) (unpublished) (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., Order No. 73–24619).

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, "Ubertragung Nicht-negativer Signale Durch Lineare Filter," Opt. Acta 9, 335 (1962).

Marcum, J. I.

J. I. Marcum and P. Swerling, "Studies of Target Detection by Pulsed Radar," Trans. Infor. Theory IT-6, 59–308(1960).

Marks, J. M.

L. J. Porcello, N. G. Massey, R. B. Innes, and J. M. Marks, "Diversity and Mixed-Integration Processing in Synthetic-Aperture Radar," Fourteenth Annual Triservice Radar Symposium Record, Vol. II, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 114–142, October (1968) (SECRET).

J. S. Zelenka and J. M. Marks, "Optically Processing Hologram Radar Data," Fifteenth Annual Tri-Service Radar Symposium Record, WRL, University of Michigan, 2412-3-X, (1969).

Massey, N. G.

L. J. Porcello, N. G. Massey, R. B. Innes, and J. M. Marks, "Diversity and Mixed-Integration Processing in Synthetic-Aperture Radar," Fourteenth Annual Triservice Radar Symposium Record, Vol. II, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 114–142, October (1968) (SECRET).

Palermo, C. J.

C. J. Palermo, "Theory of Stochastic Delays," Ph.D. thesis (University Microfilms Inc., Document No. 64–868 (1963) (unpublished.

W. M. Brown and C. J. Palermo, Random Processes, Communications, and Radar (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

Palermo, Dr. C. J.

Internal memorandum and private conversations between the author and Dr. B. P. Hildebrand and Dr. C. J. Palermo.

Papoulis, A.

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

Penn, W. A.

W. A. Penn, Signal Fidelity in Radar Processing," IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-6, 204–218 (1962).

Porcello, L. J.

L. J. Porcello, "Speckle reduction in synthetic-aperture Radars," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1305–1311 (1976) (following paper).

W. M. Brown and L. J. Porcello, "An Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Spectrum, 5, 52–62 (1969).

L. J. Porcello, N. G. Massey, R. B. Innes, and J. M. Marks, "Diversity and Mixed-Integration Processing in Synthetic-Aperture Radar," Fourteenth Annual Triservice Radar Symposium Record, Vol. II, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 114–142, October (1968) (SECRET).

Raney, R. K.

Root, W. J.

W. B. Davenport, Jr., and W. J. Root, An Introduction to the Theory of Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958).

Swerling, P.

J. I. Marcum and P. Swerling, "Studies of Target Detection by Pulsed Radar," Trans. Infor. Theory IT-6, 59–308(1960).

Zelenka, J. S.

J. S. Zelenka and J. M. Marks, "Optically Processing Hologram Radar Data," Fifteenth Annual Tri-Service Radar Symposium Record, WRL, University of Michigan, 2412-3-X, (1969).

IEEE Spectrum (1)

W. M. Brown and L. J. Porcello, "An Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Spectrum, 5, 52–62 (1969).

IEEE Trans. AES (1)

W. M. Brown, "Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Trans. AES AES-3, 217–229 (1967).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Opt. Acta (1)

W. Lukosz, "Ubertragung Nicht-negativer Signale Durch Lineare Filter," Opt. Acta 9, 335 (1962).

Trans. Infor. Theory (1)

J. I. Marcum and P. Swerling, "Studies of Target Detection by Pulsed Radar," Trans. Infor. Theory IT-6, 59–308(1960).

Other (14)

W. A. Penn, Signal Fidelity in Radar Processing," IRE Trans. Mil. Electron. MIL-6, 204–218 (1962).

R. O. Harger, Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems, Theory and Design (Academic, New York, 1970).

E. N. Leith, "Quasi-Holographic Techniques in the Micro-wave Region," Proc. IEEE 59, 1305–1318 (1971).

Internal memorandum and private conversations between the author and Dr. B. P. Hildebrand and Dr. C. J. Palermo.

C. J. Palermo, "Theory of Stochastic Delays," Ph.D. thesis (University Microfilms Inc., Document No. 64–868 (1963) (unpublished.

L. J. Porcello, N. G. Massey, R. B. Innes, and J. M. Marks, "Diversity and Mixed-Integration Processing in Synthetic-Aperture Radar," Fourteenth Annual Triservice Radar Symposium Record, Vol. II, Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 114–142, October (1968) (SECRET).

J. S. Zelenka and J. M. Marks, "Optically Processing Hologram Radar Data," Fifteenth Annual Tri-Service Radar Symposium Record, WRL, University of Michigan, 2412-3-X, (1969).

R. W. Lewis, "Redundancy in Coherent Imaging Systems," Ph.D. thesis (University of Michigan, January, 1973) (unpublished) (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., Order No. 73–24619).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

W. M. Brown and C. J. Palermo, Random Processes, Communications, and Radar (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

W. B. Davenport, Jr., and W. J. Root, An Introduction to the Theory of Random Signals and Noise (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958).

W. M. Brown, Analysis of Linear Time-Invariant Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

R. R. Goldberg, Fourier Transforms (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, England, 1961).

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