Abstract

The effects of speckle on the performance of adaptive optical (COAT) systems is examined, with particular emphasis on multidither COAT systems. Experimental, analytical, and computer simulation data are presented that are in mutual agreement and that define the performance of multidither systems in the presence of speckle effects. In general,<sup>1</sup> the performance of coherent-light adaptive systems can be degraded by speckleinduced effects. The severity of the degradation depends on the target parameters (surface roughness, glint structure, geometry, motion) and the adaptive system parameters (wavelength, bandwidth, servo details).

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. The term "COAT" is generally applied to self-adaptive, optical-phased arrays that derive their phasing information from energy reflected from the target.
  2. R. F. Ogrodnik and G. Gurski, "Target Return-Adaptive Aperture System Interaction Effects," (unpublished).
  3. J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).
  4. P. F. Cone and J. Feinleib, "High-Speed Deformable Mirrors for Wavefront Correction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).
  5. A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, and H. C. Reynolds, "Development of a High-Power Cooled Mirror with Active Figure Control," (unpublished).
  6. R. A. Muller and A. Buffington, "Real-time correction of atmospherically degraded telescope images through image sharpening," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1200 (1974).
  7. J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real Time Phase Correction of Optical Imaging Systems," Proceedings of the OSA Topical meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB1.
  8. L. Miller, W. P. Brown, Jr., J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging Through Turbulence with Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Proceedings of the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB2.
  9. J. E. Pearson, W. P. Brown, Jr., S. A. Kokorowski, T. R. O'Meara, and M. E. Pedinoff, "COAT Compensation for Turbulence and Thermal Blooming with Realistic, Complex Targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).
  10. An "out-going wave" system senses phase changes on the laser beam as it propagates to the target. A "return-wave" system senses phase changes impressed on the energy reflected from the target. T. R. O'Meara in the "Multidither principle in adaptive optics" (submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am.) has discussed these systems in detail.
  11. W. B. Bridges, P. T. Brunner, S. P. Lazzara, T. A. Nussmeier, T. R. O'Meara, J. A. Sanguinet, and W. P. Brown, Jr., "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 13, 291 (1974).
  12. J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element, Visible, Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 611 (1976).
  13. James E. Pearson, "Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 15, 622 (1976).
  14. W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).
  15. L. I. Goldfisher, "Autocorrelation Function and Power Spectral Density of Laser-Produced Speckle Patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 247 (1965).
  16. N. George (unpublished).
  17. S. A. Kokorowski, M. E. Pedinoff, and J. E. Pearson, "Analytical, Experimental, and Computer Simulation Results on the Interactive Effects of Speckle with Multidither Adaptive Optics Systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).
  18. R. F. Ogradnik, "Adaptive Control Theory Applied to Active Optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1213A (1975).

1976 (2)

1975 (3)

J. E. Pearson, W. P. Brown, Jr., S. A. Kokorowski, T. R. O'Meara, and M. E. Pedinoff, "COAT Compensation for Turbulence and Thermal Blooming with Realistic, Complex Targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

P. F. Cone and J. Feinleib, "High-Speed Deformable Mirrors for Wavefront Correction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).

1974 (3)

1965 (1)

Angelbeck, A. W.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, and H. C. Reynolds, "Development of a High-Power Cooled Mirror with Active Figure Control," (unpublished).

Bridges, W. B.

Brown, Jr., W. P.

J. E. Pearson, W. P. Brown, Jr., S. A. Kokorowski, T. R. O'Meara, and M. E. Pedinoff, "COAT Compensation for Turbulence and Thermal Blooming with Realistic, Complex Targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

W. B. Bridges, P. T. Brunner, S. P. Lazzara, T. A. Nussmeier, T. R. O'Meara, J. A. Sanguinet, and W. P. Brown, Jr., "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 13, 291 (1974).

L. Miller, W. P. Brown, Jr., J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging Through Turbulence with Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Proceedings of the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB2.

Brunner, P. T.

Buffington, A.

Cone, P. F.

P. F. Cone and J. Feinleib, "High-Speed Deformable Mirrors for Wavefront Correction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).

Feinleib, J.

P. F. Cone and J. Feinleib, "High-Speed Deformable Mirrors for Wavefront Correction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real Time Phase Correction of Optical Imaging Systems," Proceedings of the OSA Topical meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB1.

Freeman, R. H.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, and H. C. Reynolds, "Development of a High-Power Cooled Mirror with Active Figure Control," (unpublished).

George, N.

N. George (unpublished).

Goldfisher, L. I.

Gurski, G.

R. F. Ogrodnik and G. Gurski, "Target Return-Adaptive Aperture System Interaction Effects," (unpublished).

Hansen, S.

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real Time Phase Correction of Optical Imaging Systems," Proceedings of the OSA Topical meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB1.

Jenney, J. A.

L. Miller, W. P. Brown, Jr., J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging Through Turbulence with Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Proceedings of the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB2.

Kokorowski, S. A.

J. E. Pearson, W. P. Brown, Jr., S. A. Kokorowski, T. R. O'Meara, and M. E. Pedinoff, "COAT Compensation for Turbulence and Thermal Blooming with Realistic, Complex Targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

S. A. Kokorowski, M. E. Pedinoff, and J. E. Pearson, "Analytical, Experimental, and Computer Simulation Results on the Interactive Effects of Speckle with Multidither Adaptive Optics Systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).

Lazzara, S. P.

Lipson, S. G.

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).

Miller, L.

L. Miller, W. P. Brown, Jr., J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging Through Turbulence with Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Proceedings of the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB2.

Muller, R. A.

Nussmeier, T. A.

Ogradnik, R. F.

R. F. Ogradnik, "Adaptive Control Theory Applied to Active Optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1213A (1975).

Ogrodnik, R. F.

R. F. Ogrodnik and G. Gurski, "Target Return-Adaptive Aperture System Interaction Effects," (unpublished).

O'Meara, T. R.

J. E. Pearson, W. P. Brown, Jr., S. A. Kokorowski, T. R. O'Meara, and M. E. Pedinoff, "COAT Compensation for Turbulence and Thermal Blooming with Realistic, Complex Targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

O'Meara, T. R.

W. B. Bridges, P. T. Brunner, S. P. Lazzara, T. A. Nussmeier, T. R. O'Meara, J. A. Sanguinet, and W. P. Brown, Jr., "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Appl. Opt. 13, 291 (1974).

L. Miller, W. P. Brown, Jr., J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging Through Turbulence with Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Proceedings of the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB2.

Pearson, J. E.

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element, Visible, Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 611 (1976).

W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).

J. E. Pearson, W. P. Brown, Jr., S. A. Kokorowski, T. R. O'Meara, and M. E. Pedinoff, "COAT Compensation for Turbulence and Thermal Blooming with Realistic, Complex Targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

S. A. Kokorowski, M. E. Pedinoff, and J. E. Pearson, "Analytical, Experimental, and Computer Simulation Results on the Interactive Effects of Speckle with Multidither Adaptive Optics Systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).

Pearson, James E.

Pedinoff, M. E.

J. E. Pearson, W. B. Bridges, S. Hansen, T. A. Nussmeier, and M. E. Pedinoff, "Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques: Design and Performance of an 18-Element, Visible, Multidither COAT System," Appl. Opt. 15, 611 (1976).

J. E. Pearson, W. P. Brown, Jr., S. A. Kokorowski, T. R. O'Meara, and M. E. Pedinoff, "COAT Compensation for Turbulence and Thermal Blooming with Realistic, Complex Targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

S. A. Kokorowski, M. E. Pedinoff, and J. E. Pearson, "Analytical, Experimental, and Computer Simulation Results on the Interactive Effects of Speckle with Multidither Adaptive Optics Systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).

Reynolds, H. C.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, and H. C. Reynolds, "Development of a High-Power Cooled Mirror with Active Figure Control," (unpublished).

Sanguinet, J. A.

Wyant, J. C.

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real Time Phase Correction of Optical Imaging Systems," Proceedings of the OSA Topical meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB1.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. B. Bridges and J. E. Pearson, "Thermal Blooming Compensation Using Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques (COAT)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 539 (1975).

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, and P. F. Cone, "Monolithic piezoelectric mirror for wavefront correction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

P. F. Cone and J. Feinleib, "High-Speed Deformable Mirrors for Wavefront Correction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

J. E. Pearson, W. P. Brown, Jr., S. A. Kokorowski, T. R. O'Meara, and M. E. Pedinoff, "COAT Compensation for Turbulence and Thermal Blooming with Realistic, Complex Targets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1212A (1975).

L. I. Goldfisher, "Autocorrelation Function and Power Spectral Density of Laser-Produced Speckle Patterns," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 247 (1965).

R. A. Muller and A. Buffington, "Real-time correction of atmospherically degraded telescope images through image sharpening," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1200 (1974).

Other (9)

N. George (unpublished).

S. A. Kokorowski, M. E. Pedinoff, and J. E. Pearson, "Analytical, Experimental, and Computer Simulation Results on the Interactive Effects of Speckle with Multidither Adaptive Optics Systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).

R. F. Ogradnik, "Adaptive Control Theory Applied to Active Optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1213A (1975).

An "out-going wave" system senses phase changes on the laser beam as it propagates to the target. A "return-wave" system senses phase changes impressed on the energy reflected from the target. T. R. O'Meara in the "Multidither principle in adaptive optics" (submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am.) has discussed these systems in detail.

The term "COAT" is generally applied to self-adaptive, optical-phased arrays that derive their phasing information from energy reflected from the target.

R. F. Ogrodnik and G. Gurski, "Target Return-Adaptive Aperture System Interaction Effects," (unpublished).

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, and H. C. Reynolds, "Development of a High-Power Cooled Mirror with Active Figure Control," (unpublished).

J. W. Hardy, J. Feinleib, and J. C. Wyant, "Real Time Phase Correction of Optical Imaging Systems," Proceedings of the OSA Topical meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB1.

L. Miller, W. P. Brown, Jr., J. A. Jenney, and T. R. O'Meara, "Imaging Through Turbulence with Coherent Optical Adaptive Techniques," Proceedings of the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation Through Turbulence, July 1974, paper ThB2.

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