Abstract

Measurements are presented of lens-atmosphere modulation transfer functions for short-exposure speckle imaging at the AMOS observatory in Maui, Hawaii. Star images were recorded with a video sensor system and processed digitally. Near-diffraction-limited modulation transfer functions were recorded and analyzed for a 122 cm aperture instrument during fair to poor seeing conditions. Mean values for r0, the aperture wave-front correlation scale, ranged between 4.1 and 6.4 cm. Total projected rms image wander ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 arc sec. The results are in substantial agreement with theoretical predictions and laboratory simulation results.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analyzing Speckle Patterns in Star Images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85–87 (1970).
  2. D. Korff, “Analysis of a method for obtaining near-diffraction-limited information in the presence of atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 971–980 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Aime, “Measurement of averaged squared modulus of atmospheric-lens modulation transfer function,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1129–1132 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, “Laboratory Simulation of Speckle Interferometry,” (unpublished).
  5. A. Labeyrie, “Observations Interférométriques au Mont Palomar,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 141–151 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  6. The SIT tube system used was model 1205D of the SSR Instruments Co.
  7. The MTF calculation of D. Korff (Ref. 2) involves a number of approximations which may make the high-frequency level uncertain by up to, perhaps, a factor of 2 [D. Korff (private communication)].
  8. D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, “Information Retrieval from Atmospheric Induced Speckle Patterns,” Opt. Commun. 5, 187–192 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  9. If all the image wander were due to atmospheric phase effects, a wave front phase deviation up to nine waves would be implied [M. G. Miller (private communication)].

1974 (2)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, “Information Retrieval from Atmospheric Induced Speckle Patterns,” Opt. Commun. 5, 187–192 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analyzing Speckle Patterns in Star Images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85–87 (1970).

Aime, C.

Dryden, G.

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, “Information Retrieval from Atmospheric Induced Speckle Patterns,” Opt. Commun. 5, 187–192 (1972).
[Crossref]

Karo, D. P.

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, “Laboratory Simulation of Speckle Interferometry,” (unpublished).

Korff, D.

D. Korff, “Analysis of a method for obtaining near-diffraction-limited information in the presence of atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 971–980 (1973).
[Crossref]

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, “Information Retrieval from Atmospheric Induced Speckle Patterns,” Opt. Commun. 5, 187–192 (1972).
[Crossref]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Observations Interférométriques au Mont Palomar,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 141–151 (1974).
[Crossref]

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analyzing Speckle Patterns in Star Images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85–87 (1970).

Miller, M. G.

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, “Information Retrieval from Atmospheric Induced Speckle Patterns,” Opt. Commun. 5, 187–192 (1972).
[Crossref]

Schneiderman, A. M.

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, “Laboratory Simulation of Speckle Interferometry,” (unpublished).

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analyzing Speckle Patterns in Star Images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85–87 (1970).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Observations Interférométriques au Mont Palomar,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 141–151 (1974).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Korff, G. Dryden, and M. G. Miller, “Information Retrieval from Atmospheric Induced Speckle Patterns,” Opt. Commun. 5, 187–192 (1972).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

If all the image wander were due to atmospheric phase effects, a wave front phase deviation up to nine waves would be implied [M. G. Miller (private communication)].

The SIT tube system used was model 1205D of the SSR Instruments Co.

The MTF calculation of D. Korff (Ref. 2) involves a number of approximations which may make the high-frequency level uncertain by up to, perhaps, a factor of 2 [D. Korff (private communication)].

D. P. Karo and A. M. Schneiderman, “Laboratory Simulation of Speckle Interferometry,” (unpublished).

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Figures (7)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Sensor package optical train.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

(a) MTF from images of α Lyra taken at 0100 on 12 June 1975. τ is the instantaneous optical transfer function (OTF) and fD.L. is the diffraction-limited spatial frequency of the telescope. (b) Low-frequency portion of MTF in 2(a).

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

(a) MTF from images of α Lyra taken at 2350 on 10 June 1975. (b) Low-frequency portion of MTF in 3(a).

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Deviations in the speckle MTF as a function of frequency for α Lyra at 10 June 1975, 2350 (×) and 12 June 1975, 0100 (○). The solid line shows the expected values under the simple-model assumption of constant r0.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Deviations in the speckle MTF as a function of frequency for laboratory simulations of the field conditions for the data in Fig. 4.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Effect of measured fluctuations in MTF is shown by the +σ and −σ lines around the low-frequency portion of the MTF measured from images of α Lyra taken at 0100 on 12 June 1975 [Fig. 2(b)]. The size of the statistical uncertainty due to processing only 200 images is shown in the lower left-hand corner bar.

FIG. 7
FIG. 7

Ratio of two transfer functions at various spatial frequencies for the field data on α Lyra 10 June 1975, 2350 (△), α Lyra 12 June 1975 0100 (●), and one laboratory simulation (○). The solid line is the expected level for a Rayleigh distributed modulus above the seeing-limited frequency.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Transfer function statistics.