Abstract

A general theory is presented for the characteristics of speckle when electromagnetic waves are scattered by a rotating, rough surface which has underlying shape features. An expression is derived for the cross-correlation function of the electric field scattered to two different observation points, with the two states including wavelength changes as well as object motion. This function is the basic building block from which to study remote sensing of object features using FM-laser systems or to study the spectral broadening caused by object rotation. Illustrative calculations are presented for rotating cylinders and for roughened spheres.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. These are discussed and referenced in the topics volume edited by J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).
  2. N. George, "The wavelength sensitivity of back-scattering," Opt. Commun. 16, 328–333 (1976).
  3. N. George, A. C. Livanos, J. A. Roth, and C. H. Papas, "Remote sensing of large roughened spheres," Opt. Acta 23, 367–387 (1976).
  4. J. V. Evans and Tor Hagfors, Radar Astronomy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  5. R. M. Goldstein, Radar Exploration of Venus (Ph. D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1962).
  6. R. F. Broderick and H. S. Hayre, "Doppler Return From a Random Rough Surface," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Sys. AES-5, 441–449 (1969).
  7. J. van Bladel, "Electromagnetic Fields in the Presence of Rotating Bodies," Proc. IEEE 64, 301–318 (1976).
  8. T. C. Mo, "Theory of electrodynamics in media in noninertial frames and applications," J. Math. Phys. 11, 2589–2610 (1970).
  9. C. Yeh, "Scattering of obliquely incident microwaves by a moving plasma column " J. Appl. Phys. 40, 5066–5075 (1969).
  10. H. S. Cabayan and R. C. Murphy, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Rough Perfectly Conducting Circular Cylinders," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP21 893–895 (1973).
  11. M. C. Teich, "Homodyne Detection of Infrared Radiation from a Moving Diffuse Target," Proc. IEEE 57, 786–792 (1969).
  12. J. W. Goodman, "Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance," Proc. IE EE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).
  13. J. W. Goodman, "Degredation of image quality and velocity measurement accuracy by speckle phenomena," Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., unpublished memorandum.
  14. C. H. Papas, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).
  15. J. Van Bladel, "Relativistic Theory of Rotating Disks," Proc. IEEE 61, 260–268 (1973).
  16. P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, 1963).
  17. B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic, New York, 1975).
  18. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., 1964).
  19. I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, New York, 1965).
  20. H. E. Rowe, Signals and Noise in Communication Systems (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1965).
  21. W. R. Symthe, Static and Dynamic Electricity, 3rd ed. (Mc-Graw-Hill, New York, 1968).

1976

N. George, "The wavelength sensitivity of back-scattering," Opt. Commun. 16, 328–333 (1976).

1973

H. S. Cabayan and R. C. Murphy, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Rough Perfectly Conducting Circular Cylinders," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP21 893–895 (1973).

1970

T. C. Mo, "Theory of electrodynamics in media in noninertial frames and applications," J. Math. Phys. 11, 2589–2610 (1970).

1969

C. Yeh, "Scattering of obliquely incident microwaves by a moving plasma column " J. Appl. Phys. 40, 5066–5075 (1969).

R. F. Broderick and H. S. Hayre, "Doppler Return From a Random Rough Surface," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Sys. AES-5, 441–449 (1969).

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., 1964).

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, 1963).

Bertolotti, M.

B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic, New York, 1975).

Broderick, R. F.

R. F. Broderick and H. S. Hayre, "Doppler Return From a Random Rough Surface," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Sys. AES-5, 441–449 (1969).

Cabayan, H. S.

H. S. Cabayan and R. C. Murphy, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Rough Perfectly Conducting Circular Cylinders," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP21 893–895 (1973).

Crosignani, B.

B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic, New York, 1975).

Dainty, J. C.

These are discussed and referenced in the topics volume edited by J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).

DiPorto, P.

B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic, New York, 1975).

Evans, J. V.

J. V. Evans and Tor Hagfors, Radar Astronomy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

George, N.

N. George, "The wavelength sensitivity of back-scattering," Opt. Commun. 16, 328–333 (1976).

N. George, A. C. Livanos, J. A. Roth, and C. H. Papas, "Remote sensing of large roughened spheres," Opt. Acta 23, 367–387 (1976).

Goldstein, R. M.

R. M. Goldstein, Radar Exploration of Venus (Ph. D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1962).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, "Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance," Proc. IE EE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

J. W. Goodman, "Degredation of image quality and velocity measurement accuracy by speckle phenomena," Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., unpublished memorandum.

Gradshteyn, I. S.

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, New York, 1965).

Hagfors, Tor

J. V. Evans and Tor Hagfors, Radar Astronomy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Hayre, H. S.

R. F. Broderick and H. S. Hayre, "Doppler Return From a Random Rough Surface," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Sys. AES-5, 441–449 (1969).

Livanos, A. C.

N. George, A. C. Livanos, J. A. Roth, and C. H. Papas, "Remote sensing of large roughened spheres," Opt. Acta 23, 367–387 (1976).

Mo, T. C.

T. C. Mo, "Theory of electrodynamics in media in noninertial frames and applications," J. Math. Phys. 11, 2589–2610 (1970).

Murphy, R. C.

H. S. Cabayan and R. C. Murphy, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Rough Perfectly Conducting Circular Cylinders," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP21 893–895 (1973).

Papas, C. H.

C. H. Papas, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

N. George, A. C. Livanos, J. A. Roth, and C. H. Papas, "Remote sensing of large roughened spheres," Opt. Acta 23, 367–387 (1976).

Roth, J. A.

N. George, A. C. Livanos, J. A. Roth, and C. H. Papas, "Remote sensing of large roughened spheres," Opt. Acta 23, 367–387 (1976).

Rowe, H. E.

H. E. Rowe, Signals and Noise in Communication Systems (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1965).

Ryzhik, I. M.

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, New York, 1965).

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, 1963).

Stegun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., 1964).

Symthe, W. R.

W. R. Symthe, Static and Dynamic Electricity, 3rd ed. (Mc-Graw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Teich, M. C.

M. C. Teich, "Homodyne Detection of Infrared Radiation from a Moving Diffuse Target," Proc. IEEE 57, 786–792 (1969).

Van Bladel, J.

J. Van Bladel, "Relativistic Theory of Rotating Disks," Proc. IEEE 61, 260–268 (1973).

J. van Bladel, "Electromagnetic Fields in the Presence of Rotating Bodies," Proc. IEEE 64, 301–318 (1976).

Yeh, C.

C. Yeh, "Scattering of obliquely incident microwaves by a moving plasma column " J. Appl. Phys. 40, 5066–5075 (1969).

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Sys.

R. F. Broderick and H. S. Hayre, "Doppler Return From a Random Rough Surface," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Sys. AES-5, 441–449 (1969).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

H. S. Cabayan and R. C. Murphy, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Rough Perfectly Conducting Circular Cylinders," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP21 893–895 (1973).

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Yeh, "Scattering of obliquely incident microwaves by a moving plasma column " J. Appl. Phys. 40, 5066–5075 (1969).

J. Math. Phys.

T. C. Mo, "Theory of electrodynamics in media in noninertial frames and applications," J. Math. Phys. 11, 2589–2610 (1970).

Opt. Commun.

N. George, "The wavelength sensitivity of back-scattering," Opt. Commun. 16, 328–333 (1976).

Other

N. George, A. C. Livanos, J. A. Roth, and C. H. Papas, "Remote sensing of large roughened spheres," Opt. Acta 23, 367–387 (1976).

J. V. Evans and Tor Hagfors, Radar Astronomy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

R. M. Goldstein, Radar Exploration of Venus (Ph. D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1962).

These are discussed and referenced in the topics volume edited by J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).

J. van Bladel, "Electromagnetic Fields in the Presence of Rotating Bodies," Proc. IEEE 64, 301–318 (1976).

M. C. Teich, "Homodyne Detection of Infrared Radiation from a Moving Diffuse Target," Proc. IEEE 57, 786–792 (1969).

J. W. Goodman, "Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance," Proc. IE EE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

J. W. Goodman, "Degredation of image quality and velocity measurement accuracy by speckle phenomena," Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., unpublished memorandum.

C. H. Papas, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

J. Van Bladel, "Relativistic Theory of Rotating Disks," Proc. IEEE 61, 260–268 (1973).

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, 1963).

B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic, New York, 1975).

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., 1964).

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, New York, 1965).

H. E. Rowe, Signals and Noise in Communication Systems (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1965).

W. R. Symthe, Static and Dynamic Electricity, 3rd ed. (Mc-Graw-Hill, New York, 1968).

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