Abstract

We discuss the properties of enhanced non-Gaussian fluctuations that occur in radiation scattered by a moving deep random phase screen (e.g., a perfectly conducting, very rough surface) when the scattering configuration is such that the electric field at the point of observation is composed of relatively few independent randomly phased contributions. Fraunhofer and Fresnel region effects are considered both from the information-content point of view and in the context of unwanted noise in measuring and detection systems.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Rigden and E. I. Gordon, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 50, 2367–2368 (1962).
  2. B. M. Oliver, Proc. IEEE 51, 220–221 (1963).
  3. "Light Beating and Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy" (Proceedings NATO Advanced Study Institute), edited H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike (Plenum, New York, 1974).
  4. "Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena," Topics in Applied Physics Vol. 9, edited by J. C. Dainty (Springer, Berlin, 1975).
  5. G. Parry in Ref. 4.
  6. K. Nagata, T. Umehara and J. Nishiwaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 1693–1698 (1973).
  7. E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369–391 (1975).
  8. P. N. Pusey and E. Jakeman, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 392–410 (1975).
  9. "Engineering Uses of Coherent Light," in Proceedings of 1975 Strathclyde Conference, edited by J. Robertson (Academic, London, 1976).
  10. L. H. Tanner, Appl. Opt. 13, 2026–2034 (1974).
  11. L. Ronchi and A. Fontana, Opt. Acta 22, 243–246 (1975).
  12. E. Jakeman, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, L23–28 (1975).
  13. T. S. Mckechnie in Ref. 4.
  14. E. Jakeman and J. G. McWhirter, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9, 785–797 (1976).
  15. P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 9, 1399–1409 (1976).
  16. L. T. Little and A. Hewish, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 134, 221–237 (1966).
  17. D. G. Singleton, J. Atom. Terr. Phys. 32, 187–208 (1970).
  18. R. P. Mercier, Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. A58, 382–400 (1962).
  19. E. N. Bramley and M. Young, Proc. IEEE 114, 553–556 (1967).
  20. E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, RRE Memo No. 2874 (Royal Radar Establishment, Malvern, Worcs., England, May 1974).
  21. E. E. Salpeter, Astrophys. J. 147, 433–448 (1967).
  22. D. W. Schaefer and B. J. Berne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 475 (1972).
  23. D. W. Schaefer and P. N. Pusey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 843 (1972).
  24. D. W. Schaefer and B. J. Berne, Biophys. J. 15, 785–94 (1975).
  25. V. Bluemel, L. M. Narducci, and R. A. Tuft, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1309 (1972).
  26. F. Scudieri, M. Bertolotti, and R. Bartolino, Appl. Opt. 13, 181–185 (1974).
  27. M. Bertolotti in Ref. 3.
  28. J. W. Wright, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 217–223 (1968).
  29. E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, and P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215–217 (1976).
  30. J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1262–1264 (1970).
  31. A. T. Young, Appl. Opt. 8, 869–885 (1969).
  32. J. Vernin and F. Roddier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270–273 (1973).
  33. A. M. Prokhorov, F. V. Bunkin, K. S. Gochelashvily, and V. I. Shishov, Proc. IEEE 63, 790–811 (1975).
  34. M. I. Skolnik, NRL Report No. 2025 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., July 1969).
  35. H. Goldstein in Propagation of Short Radio Waves, edited by D. E. Kerr McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951).
  36. K. R. Schmidt, P. M. Thieband, and J. S. Waller, NEL Report No. 7420 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., July 1972).
  37. G. Bishop in Determination and Use of Radar Scattering Characteristics, AGARD Lecture Series No. 59 (1973).
  38. Lord Rayleigh (J. W. Strutt), Philos. Mag. 6, 321–347 (1919).
  39. E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (to be published).

Bartolino, R.

F. Scudieri, M. Bertolotti, and R. Bartolino, Appl. Opt. 13, 181–185 (1974).

Berne, B. J.

D. W. Schaefer and B. J. Berne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 475 (1972).

D. W. Schaefer and B. J. Berne, Biophys. J. 15, 785–94 (1975).

Bertolotti, M.

M. Bertolotti in Ref. 3.

F. Scudieri, M. Bertolotti, and R. Bartolino, Appl. Opt. 13, 181–185 (1974).

Bishop, G.

G. Bishop in Determination and Use of Radar Scattering Characteristics, AGARD Lecture Series No. 59 (1973).

Bluemel, V.

V. Bluemel, L. M. Narducci, and R. A. Tuft, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1309 (1972).

Bramley, E. N.

E. N. Bramley and M. Young, Proc. IEEE 114, 553–556 (1967).

Bunkin, F. V.

A. M. Prokhorov, F. V. Bunkin, K. S. Gochelashvily, and V. I. Shishov, Proc. IEEE 63, 790–811 (1975).

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1262–1264 (1970).

Fontana, A.

L. Ronchi and A. Fontana, Opt. Acta 22, 243–246 (1975).

Gochelashvily, K. S.

A. M. Prokhorov, F. V. Bunkin, K. S. Gochelashvily, and V. I. Shishov, Proc. IEEE 63, 790–811 (1975).

Goldstein, H.

H. Goldstein in Propagation of Short Radio Waves, edited by D. E. Kerr McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951).

Gordon, E. I.

J. D. Rigden and E. I. Gordon, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 50, 2367–2368 (1962).

Hewish, A.

L. T. Little and A. Hewish, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 134, 221–237 (1966).

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, RRE Memo No. 2874 (Royal Radar Establishment, Malvern, Worcs., England, May 1974).

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369–391 (1975).

E. Jakeman, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, L23–28 (1975).

P. N. Pusey and E. Jakeman, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 392–410 (1975).

E. Jakeman and J. G. McWhirter, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9, 785–797 (1976).

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (to be published).

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, and P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215–217 (1976).

Little, L. T.

L. T. Little and A. Hewish, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 134, 221–237 (1966).

Mckechnie, T. S.

T. S. Mckechnie in Ref. 4.

McWhirter, J. G.

E. Jakeman and J. G. McWhirter, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9, 785–797 (1976).

Mercier, R. P.

R. P. Mercier, Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. A58, 382–400 (1962).

Nagata, K.

K. Nagata, T. Umehara and J. Nishiwaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 1693–1698 (1973).

Narducci, L. M.

V. Bluemel, L. M. Narducci, and R. A. Tuft, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1309 (1972).

Nishiwaki, J.

K. Nagata, T. Umehara and J. Nishiwaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 1693–1698 (1973).

Oliver, B. M.

B. M. Oliver, Proc. IEEE 51, 220–221 (1963).

Parry, G.

G. Parry in Ref. 4.

Pike, E. R.

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, and P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215–217 (1976).

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. M. Prokhorov, F. V. Bunkin, K. S. Gochelashvily, and V. I. Shishov, Proc. IEEE 63, 790–811 (1975).

Pusey, P. N.

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, and P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215–217 (1976).

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (to be published).

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369–391 (1975).

P. N. Pusey and E. Jakeman, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 392–410 (1975).

P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 9, 1399–1409 (1976).

D. W. Schaefer and P. N. Pusey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 843 (1972).

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, RRE Memo No. 2874 (Royal Radar Establishment, Malvern, Worcs., England, May 1974).

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh (J. W. Strutt), Philos. Mag. 6, 321–347 (1919).

Rigden, J. D.

J. D. Rigden and E. I. Gordon, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 50, 2367–2368 (1962).

Roddier, F.

J. Vernin and F. Roddier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270–273 (1973).

Ronchi, L.

L. Ronchi and A. Fontana, Opt. Acta 22, 243–246 (1975).

Salpeter, E. E.

E. E. Salpeter, Astrophys. J. 147, 433–448 (1967).

Schaefer, D. W.

D. W. Schaefer and B. J. Berne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 475 (1972).

D. W. Schaefer and B. J. Berne, Biophys. J. 15, 785–94 (1975).

D. W. Schaefer and P. N. Pusey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 843 (1972).

Schmidt, K. R.

K. R. Schmidt, P. M. Thieband, and J. S. Waller, NEL Report No. 7420 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., July 1972).

Scudieri, F.

F. Scudieri, M. Bertolotti, and R. Bartolino, Appl. Opt. 13, 181–185 (1974).

Shishov, V. I.

A. M. Prokhorov, F. V. Bunkin, K. S. Gochelashvily, and V. I. Shishov, Proc. IEEE 63, 790–811 (1975).

Singleton, D. G.

D. G. Singleton, J. Atom. Terr. Phys. 32, 187–208 (1970).

Skolnik, M. I.

M. I. Skolnik, NRL Report No. 2025 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., July 1969).

Tanner, L. H.

L. H. Tanner, Appl. Opt. 13, 2026–2034 (1974).

Thieband, P. M.

K. R. Schmidt, P. M. Thieband, and J. S. Waller, NEL Report No. 7420 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., July 1972).

Tuft, R. A.

V. Bluemel, L. M. Narducci, and R. A. Tuft, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1309 (1972).

Umehara, T.

K. Nagata, T. Umehara and J. Nishiwaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 1693–1698 (1973).

Vernin, J.

J. Vernin and F. Roddier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270–273 (1973).

Waller, J. S.

K. R. Schmidt, P. M. Thieband, and J. S. Waller, NEL Report No. 7420 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., July 1972).

Wright, J. W.

J. W. Wright, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 217–223 (1968).

Young, A. T.

A. T. Young, Appl. Opt. 8, 869–885 (1969).

Young, M.

E. N. Bramley and M. Young, Proc. IEEE 114, 553–556 (1967).

Other (39)

J. D. Rigden and E. I. Gordon, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 50, 2367–2368 (1962).

B. M. Oliver, Proc. IEEE 51, 220–221 (1963).

"Light Beating and Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy" (Proceedings NATO Advanced Study Institute), edited H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike (Plenum, New York, 1974).

"Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena," Topics in Applied Physics Vol. 9, edited by J. C. Dainty (Springer, Berlin, 1975).

G. Parry in Ref. 4.

K. Nagata, T. Umehara and J. Nishiwaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 1693–1698 (1973).

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369–391 (1975).

P. N. Pusey and E. Jakeman, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 392–410 (1975).

"Engineering Uses of Coherent Light," in Proceedings of 1975 Strathclyde Conference, edited by J. Robertson (Academic, London, 1976).

L. H. Tanner, Appl. Opt. 13, 2026–2034 (1974).

L. Ronchi and A. Fontana, Opt. Acta 22, 243–246 (1975).

E. Jakeman, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, L23–28 (1975).

T. S. Mckechnie in Ref. 4.

E. Jakeman and J. G. McWhirter, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9, 785–797 (1976).

P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 9, 1399–1409 (1976).

L. T. Little and A. Hewish, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 134, 221–237 (1966).

D. G. Singleton, J. Atom. Terr. Phys. 32, 187–208 (1970).

R. P. Mercier, Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. A58, 382–400 (1962).

E. N. Bramley and M. Young, Proc. IEEE 114, 553–556 (1967).

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, RRE Memo No. 2874 (Royal Radar Establishment, Malvern, Worcs., England, May 1974).

E. E. Salpeter, Astrophys. J. 147, 433–448 (1967).

D. W. Schaefer and B. J. Berne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 475 (1972).

D. W. Schaefer and P. N. Pusey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 843 (1972).

D. W. Schaefer and B. J. Berne, Biophys. J. 15, 785–94 (1975).

V. Bluemel, L. M. Narducci, and R. A. Tuft, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1309 (1972).

F. Scudieri, M. Bertolotti, and R. Bartolino, Appl. Opt. 13, 181–185 (1974).

M. Bertolotti in Ref. 3.

J. W. Wright, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 217–223 (1968).

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, and P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215–217 (1976).

J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1262–1264 (1970).

A. T. Young, Appl. Opt. 8, 869–885 (1969).

J. Vernin and F. Roddier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270–273 (1973).

A. M. Prokhorov, F. V. Bunkin, K. S. Gochelashvily, and V. I. Shishov, Proc. IEEE 63, 790–811 (1975).

M. I. Skolnik, NRL Report No. 2025 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., July 1969).

H. Goldstein in Propagation of Short Radio Waves, edited by D. E. Kerr McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951).

K. R. Schmidt, P. M. Thieband, and J. S. Waller, NEL Report No. 7420 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., July 1972).

G. Bishop in Determination and Use of Radar Scattering Characteristics, AGARD Lecture Series No. 59 (1973).

Lord Rayleigh (J. W. Strutt), Philos. Mag. 6, 321–347 (1919).

E. Jakeman and P. N. Pusey, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (to be published).

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