Abstract

Spectral observations are reported for transitions to the ground term and first excited term of the one-electron configurations in the 4f145p6nl isoelectronic sequence from Yb ii through Bi xv. Resonance lines are reported for the isoelectronic sequence Yb iii through Bi xvi in which the ground state is 4f145p61S0 and the upper levels are the J = 1 levels of the 4f135p6nd, 4f145p 5nd, and 4f145p 5ns configurations. The wavelengths fall in the range 70–3700 Å. The spectra were produced by means of sliding and triggered spark discharges and photographed with 10.7 m normal and grazing incidence spectrographs. The data in the Yb iii sequence demonstrate the crossing of binding energies of the 4f and 5p shells at W vii. Rydberg series terms were found in a sufficient number of cases to provide extrapolation curves through Bi xv and Bi xvi. These data enabled us to calculate ionization energies for each of these ions with an uncertainty of ~1% or better.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. F. A. Klinkenberg, T. A. M. van Kleef, and P. E. Noorman, “Spectral structure of doubly and triply ionized hafnium, Physica (Utr.) 27, 1177–1188 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. G. Meijer, “On the spectrum of Hf iv,” Physica (Utr.) 72, 431–432 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. G. Meijer and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “The structure of the spectrum of Ta v,” Physica (Utr.) 69, 111–118 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. G. Meijer, “The sixth spectrum of tungsten, W vi,” Physica (Utr.) 73, 415–420 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. F. Meggers, “The second spectrum of ytterbium (Yb ii,)” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 71A, 396–544 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “One-electron spectrum of singly-ionized ytterbium (Yb ii),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1168–1172 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. W. Bryant, “Spectra of doubly and triply ionized ytterbium, Yb iii and Yb iv,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 771–779 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “One-electron spectrum of doubly ionized lutetium (Lu iii) and nuclear magnetic dipole moment of 175Lu,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1693–1698 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Fourth spectrum of lutetium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 562–570 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Spectra and energy levels of three and four-times ionized hafnium (Hf iv and Hf v),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum (Ta vi), J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Seventh spectrum of tungsten (W viii); resonance lines of Hf v,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Sugar, “Analysis of the third spectrum of praseodymium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 831–839 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Cohen, U. Feldman, M. Swartz, and J. H. Underwood, “Study of the x rays produced by a vacuum spark,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 843–846 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Reader, G. L. Epstein, and J. O. Ekberg, “Spectra of Rb ii, Sr iii, Y iv, Zr v, Nb vi, and Mo vii in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 273–284 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Reader and G. L. Epstein, “Analysis of the spectrum of quadruply ionized yttrium (Y v),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 619–622 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Å. Svensson and J. O. Ekberg, “The titanium vacuum-spark spectrum from 50 to 425 Å,” Ark. Fys. 40, 145–163 (1969).
  18. R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms—Hydrogen Through Krypton, (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973), pp. 1–992.
  19. J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Nuclear magnetic dipole moment of 181Ta,” Phys. Rev. C 12, 1336–1339 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum of six-times ionized rhenium (Re vii),” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1402–1403 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor, “The 1973 least-squares adjustment of the fundamental constants,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 633–734 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1975 (4)

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Nuclear magnetic dipole moment of 181Ta,” Phys. Rev. C 12, 1336–1339 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum of six-times ionized rhenium (Re vii),” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1402–1403 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Seventh spectrum of tungsten (W viii); resonance lines of Hf v,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized tantalum (Ta vi), J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 302–309 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Spectra and energy levels of three and four-times ionized hafnium (Hf iv and Hf v),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1656–1664 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Meijer, “On the spectrum of Hf iv,” Physica (Utr.) 72, 431–432 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Meijer, “The sixth spectrum of tungsten, W vi,” Physica (Utr.) 73, 415–420 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (4)

F. G. Meijer and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “The structure of the spectrum of Ta v,” Physica (Utr.) 69, 111–118 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor, “The 1973 least-squares adjustment of the fundamental constants,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 633–734 (1973).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “One-electron spectrum of singly-ionized ytterbium (Yb ii),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1168–1172 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

L. Å. Svensson and J. O. Ekberg, “The titanium vacuum-spark spectrum from 50 to 425 Å,” Ark. Fys. 40, 145–163 (1969).

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

W. F. Meggers, “The second spectrum of ytterbium (Yb ii,)” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 71A, 396–544 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

1961 (1)

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, T. A. M. van Kleef, and P. E. Noorman, “Spectral structure of doubly and triply ionized hafnium, Physica (Utr.) 27, 1177–1188 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, B. W.

Cohen, E. R.

E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor, “The 1973 least-squares adjustment of the fundamental constants,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 633–734 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L.

Ekberg, J. O.

J. Reader, G. L. Epstein, and J. O. Ekberg, “Spectra of Rb ii, Sr iii, Y iv, Zr v, Nb vi, and Mo vii in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 273–284 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. Å. Svensson and J. O. Ekberg, “The titanium vacuum-spark spectrum from 50 to 425 Å,” Ark. Fys. 40, 145–163 (1969).

Epstein, G. L.

Feldman, U.

Kaufman, V.

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms—Hydrogen Through Krypton, (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973), pp. 1–992.

Klinkenberg, P. F. A.

F. G. Meijer and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “The structure of the spectrum of Ta v,” Physica (Utr.) 69, 111–118 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, T. A. M. van Kleef, and P. E. Noorman, “Spectral structure of doubly and triply ionized hafnium, Physica (Utr.) 27, 1177–1188 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Meggers, W. F.

W. F. Meggers, “The second spectrum of ytterbium (Yb ii,)” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 71A, 396–544 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, F. G.

F. G. Meijer, “On the spectrum of Hf iv,” Physica (Utr.) 72, 431–432 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Meijer, “The sixth spectrum of tungsten, W vi,” Physica (Utr.) 73, 415–420 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Meijer and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “The structure of the spectrum of Ta v,” Physica (Utr.) 69, 111–118 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Noorman, P. E.

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, T. A. M. van Kleef, and P. E. Noorman, “Spectral structure of doubly and triply ionized hafnium, Physica (Utr.) 27, 1177–1188 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Palumbo, L. J.

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms—Hydrogen Through Krypton, (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973), pp. 1–992.

Reader, J.

Sugar, J.

Svensson, L. Å.

L. Å. Svensson and J. O. Ekberg, “The titanium vacuum-spark spectrum from 50 to 425 Å,” Ark. Fys. 40, 145–163 (1969).

Swartz, M.

Taylor, B. N.

E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor, “The 1973 least-squares adjustment of the fundamental constants,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 633–734 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

van Kleef, T. A. M.

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, T. A. M. van Kleef, and P. E. Noorman, “Spectral structure of doubly and triply ionized hafnium, Physica (Utr.) 27, 1177–1188 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ark. Fys. (1)

L. Å. Svensson and J. O. Ekberg, “The titanium vacuum-spark spectrum from 50 to 425 Å,” Ark. Fys. 40, 145–163 (1969).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Sugar and J. Reader, “Ionization energies of doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2083–2089 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor, “The 1973 least-squares adjustment of the fundamental constants,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 633–734 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) (1)

W. F. Meggers, “The second spectrum of ytterbium (Yb ii,)” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 71A, 396–544 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Seventh spectrum of tungsten (W viii); resonance lines of Hf v,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 994–1012 (1975).
[CrossRef]

V. Kaufman and J. Sugar, “Spectrum of six-times ionized rhenium (Re vii),” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1402–1403 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. C (1)

J. Sugar and V. Kaufman, “Nuclear magnetic dipole moment of 181Ta,” Phys. Rev. C 12, 1336–1339 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Physica (Utr.) (4)

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, T. A. M. van Kleef, and P. E. Noorman, “Spectral structure of doubly and triply ionized hafnium, Physica (Utr.) 27, 1177–1188 (1961).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Meijer, “On the spectrum of Hf iv,” Physica (Utr.) 72, 431–432 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Meijer and P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “The structure of the spectrum of Ta v,” Physica (Utr.) 69, 111–118 (1973).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Meijer, “The sixth spectrum of tungsten, W vi,” Physica (Utr.) 73, 415–420 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. L. Kelly and L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms—Hydrogen Through Krypton, (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973), pp. 1–992.

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Figures (3)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Resonance (or near resonance) lines of the Yb ii isoelectronic sequence (4f145p6)nl-nl′ given in terms of transitions energies: group A, 6s-6p; group B, 5d-6p; group C, 5d-5f. Dashed lines are extrapolations. See Table I for wavelengths and references.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Resonance lines of the Yb iii isoelectronic sequences with ground state 4f145p6. See Table II for data and references.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

6s-7s energy interval used for calculating ionization energies. Dashed portions of curves are extrapolated. Divisor Zeff is spectrum number (roman numeral).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Observed spectral lines of the Yb ii one-electron-like isoelectronic sequence. The ground level is 6s 2S1/2 in Yb ii and Lu iii, and is 5d2D3/2 for the others. Wavelengths in vacuum are given below 2100 Å.

Tables Icon

TABLE II Observed resonance lines of the Yb iii isoelectronic sequence. The ground state is 41145s25p6 1S0, The excited states given in column 1 are the J = 1 levels denoted in J1j coupling. Lines in parentheses are predicted by least-squares-adjusted calculations. Lines given without intensity are calculated from known levels. All wavelengths are measured in vacuum except for the Yb iii line at 2516.815 Å.

Tables Icon

TABLE III Ionization energies for Yb ii isoelectronic sequence derived from 4f14ns series. The conversion factor 1 eV = 8065.479 cm−1 given in Ref. 22 was used.

Tables Icon

TABLE IV Ionization energies for Yb iii isoelectronic sequence derived from 4f13 ns series through W vii and from 5p5 ns thereafter. The conversion factor 1 eV = 8065.479 cm−1 given in Ref. 22 was used.