Abstract

An approximate analytical expression is calculated for the transmission of thin twisted nematic layers situated between a polarizer/analyzer pair. The approximation assumes that the twist angle of the nematic liquid crystal is smaller than the maximum retardation of the cell. The direction of the incident light is assumed to be parallel to the normal of the electrode. This configuration is analyzed for a general arrangement of polarizer and analyzer; the general result is evaluated for the case of the polarizer parallel and analyzer perpendicular to the liquid-crystal optical axis on the input and output electrodes, respectively. The results show that in the case of a thin twisted nematic layer the transmission depends on the thickness of the layer, on the birefringence of the liquid crystal, and on the wavelength of the light. This is a departure from the well-known independence of the transmission on these parameters for a thick twisted nematic layer. The analysis also shows that the transmission through thin layers can be minimized by tuning the layer thickness to particular values that depend on wavelength and on liquid-crystal birefringence. In this way, high image contrast can be obtained even for thin liquid-crystal layers.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127–128 (1971).
  2. F. Pockels, Lehrbuch der Krystalloptic (B. G. Teubner, Berlin, 1906).
  3. S. Ramaseshan, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sol. 34A, 32 (1951).
  4. H. de Vries, Acta Crystallogr. 4, 219 (1951).
  5. H. Mada and S. Kobayaski, Rev. Phys. Appl. 10, 147 (1975).
  6. C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, Electron. Lett. 10, (1973).
  7. R. Azzam and N. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1252 (1972).
  8. R. Dreher and G. Meier, Phys. Rev. A 8, 1616 (1973).
  9. R. Dreher and G. Meier, Solid State Commun. 13, 607 (1973).
  10. G. Conners, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 875 (1968).
  11. S. Chandrasekhar and K. Rao, Acta. Crystallogr. A 24, 445 (1968).
  12. M. Mauguin, Bull. Soc. Franc. Miner. Crisf. 34, 71 (1911).
  13. J. Billard, Mol. Cryst. 3, 227 (1967).
  14. T. J. Scheffer, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4799–4803 (1973).
  15. I. A. Shanks, Electron. Lett. 10, 7 (1974).
  16. E. P. Raynes and I. A. Shanks, Electron. Lett. 10, 7 (1974).
  17. S. Sato and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-21, 312 (1974).
  18. J. Grinberg et al., IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-22, 775–783 (1975).
  19. J. Grinberg et al., J. SPIE 14, 217–225 (1975).
  20. See, for example, A. L. Goodman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10, 804–823 (1973).
  21. Dwight W. Berreman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1374 (1973).
  22. J. E. Bigelow and R. A. Kashnow, G. E. Technical Information Series Report No. 74, CDR 090, June 1974 (unpublished), and the references included therein.

Azzam, R.

R. Azzam and N. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1252 (1972).

Bashara, N.

R. Azzam and N. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1252 (1972).

Berreman, Dwight W.

Dwight W. Berreman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1374 (1973).

Bigelow, J. E.

J. E. Bigelow and R. A. Kashnow, G. E. Technical Information Series Report No. 74, CDR 090, June 1974 (unpublished), and the references included therein.

Billard, J.

J. Billard, Mol. Cryst. 3, 227 (1967).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar and K. Rao, Acta. Crystallogr. A 24, 445 (1968).

Conners, G.

G. Conners, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 875 (1968).

de Vries, H.

H. de Vries, Acta Crystallogr. 4, 219 (1951).

Dreher, R.

R. Dreher and G. Meier, Solid State Commun. 13, 607 (1973).

R. Dreher and G. Meier, Phys. Rev. A 8, 1616 (1973).

Gooch, C. H.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, Electron. Lett. 10, (1973).

Goodman, A. L.

See, for example, A. L. Goodman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10, 804–823 (1973).

Grinberg, J.

J. Grinberg et al., IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-22, 775–783 (1975).

J. Grinberg et al., J. SPIE 14, 217–225 (1975).

Helfrich, W.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127–128 (1971).

Kashnow, R. A.

J. E. Bigelow and R. A. Kashnow, G. E. Technical Information Series Report No. 74, CDR 090, June 1974 (unpublished), and the references included therein.

Kobayaski, S.

H. Mada and S. Kobayaski, Rev. Phys. Appl. 10, 147 (1975).

Mada, H.

H. Mada and S. Kobayaski, Rev. Phys. Appl. 10, 147 (1975).

Mauguin, M.

M. Mauguin, Bull. Soc. Franc. Miner. Crisf. 34, 71 (1911).

Meier, G.

R. Dreher and G. Meier, Phys. Rev. A 8, 1616 (1973).

R. Dreher and G. Meier, Solid State Commun. 13, 607 (1973).

Pockels, F.

F. Pockels, Lehrbuch der Krystalloptic (B. G. Teubner, Berlin, 1906).

Ramaseshan, S.

S. Ramaseshan, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sol. 34A, 32 (1951).

Rao, K.

S. Chandrasekhar and K. Rao, Acta. Crystallogr. A 24, 445 (1968).

Raynes, E. P.

E. P. Raynes and I. A. Shanks, Electron. Lett. 10, 7 (1974).

Sato, S.

S. Sato and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-21, 312 (1974).

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127–128 (1971).

Scheffer, T. J.

T. J. Scheffer, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4799–4803 (1973).

Shanks, I. A.

I. A. Shanks, Electron. Lett. 10, 7 (1974).

E. P. Raynes and I. A. Shanks, Electron. Lett. 10, 7 (1974).

Tarry, H. A.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, Electron. Lett. 10, (1973).

Wada, M.

S. Sato and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-21, 312 (1974).

Other (22)

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127–128 (1971).

F. Pockels, Lehrbuch der Krystalloptic (B. G. Teubner, Berlin, 1906).

S. Ramaseshan, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sol. 34A, 32 (1951).

H. de Vries, Acta Crystallogr. 4, 219 (1951).

H. Mada and S. Kobayaski, Rev. Phys. Appl. 10, 147 (1975).

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, Electron. Lett. 10, (1973).

R. Azzam and N. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1252 (1972).

R. Dreher and G. Meier, Phys. Rev. A 8, 1616 (1973).

R. Dreher and G. Meier, Solid State Commun. 13, 607 (1973).

G. Conners, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 875 (1968).

S. Chandrasekhar and K. Rao, Acta. Crystallogr. A 24, 445 (1968).

M. Mauguin, Bull. Soc. Franc. Miner. Crisf. 34, 71 (1911).

J. Billard, Mol. Cryst. 3, 227 (1967).

T. J. Scheffer, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4799–4803 (1973).

I. A. Shanks, Electron. Lett. 10, 7 (1974).

E. P. Raynes and I. A. Shanks, Electron. Lett. 10, 7 (1974).

S. Sato and M. Wada, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-21, 312 (1974).

J. Grinberg et al., IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-22, 775–783 (1975).

J. Grinberg et al., J. SPIE 14, 217–225 (1975).

See, for example, A. L. Goodman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10, 804–823 (1973).

Dwight W. Berreman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1374 (1973).

J. E. Bigelow and R. A. Kashnow, G. E. Technical Information Series Report No. 74, CDR 090, June 1974 (unpublished), and the references included therein.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.