Abstract

Linear-retardation spectra of single frog-rod outer segments were measured by use of a microspectrophotometer equipped with polarizing optics. The recorded transmitted-flux variation was reduced to a rhodopsin anomalous-dispersion spectrum by use of the Jones calculus. This anomalous dispersion is compared with theoretical predictions.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z 85, 137 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. A. Liebman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 157, 250 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience, New York, 1963).
  4. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass., 1966).
  5. E. Corinaldesi, Nuovo Cimento Suppl. XIV, 369 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. A. Kramers, Atti Congr. Int. Fisica, Como 2, 545 (1927).
  7. A. S. Davidov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 17, No. 5, 523 (1953).
  8. J. M. Jauch and F. Rohrlich, The Theory of Photons and Electrons (Addison–Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1955).
  9. P. Latimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 116 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. A. Liebman and G. Entine, Vision Res. 8, 761 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. W. Snyder and P. Richmond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1278 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1025 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

P. A. Liebman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 157, 250 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

P. A. Liebman and G. Entine, Vision Res. 8, 761 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

1960 (1)

1959 (1)

E. Corinaldesi, Nuovo Cimento Suppl. XIV, 369 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

A. S. Davidov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 17, No. 5, 523 (1953).

1938 (1)

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z 85, 137 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1927 (1)

M. H. A. Kramers, Atti Congr. Int. Fisica, Como 2, 545 (1927).

Corinaldesi, E.

E. Corinaldesi, Nuovo Cimento Suppl. XIV, 369 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Davidov, A. S.

A. S. Davidov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 17, No. 5, 523 (1953).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience, New York, 1963).

Enoch, J. M.

Entine, G.

P. A. Liebman and G. Entine, Vision Res. 8, 761 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jauch, J. M.

J. M. Jauch and F. Rohrlich, The Theory of Photons and Electrons (Addison–Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1955).

Kramers, M. H. A.

M. H. A. Kramers, Atti Congr. Int. Fisica, Como 2, 545 (1927).

Latimer, P.

Liebman, P. A.

P. A. Liebman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 157, 250 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Liebman and G. Entine, Vision Res. 8, 761 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richmond, P.

Rohrlich, F.

J. M. Jauch and F. Rohrlich, The Theory of Photons and Electrons (Addison–Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1955).

Schmidt, W. J.

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z 85, 137 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass., 1966).

Snyder, A. W.

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

P. A. Liebman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 157, 250 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Atti Congr. Int. Fisica, Como (1)

M. H. A. Kramers, Atti Congr. Int. Fisica, Como 2, 545 (1927).

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. (1)

A. S. Davidov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 17, No. 5, 523 (1953).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Kolloid-Z (1)

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z 85, 137 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento Suppl. (1)

E. Corinaldesi, Nuovo Cimento Suppl. XIV, 369 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

P. A. Liebman and G. Entine, Vision Res. 8, 761 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. M. Jauch and F. Rohrlich, The Theory of Photons and Electrons (Addison–Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1955).

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience, New York, 1963).

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass., 1966).

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Figures (3)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Lower trace, absorbance of single rod outer segment placed at 45° between crossed polarizing filters, with λ/20 compensator. Upper trace, baseline (no outer segment). Absorbance increases upward; vertical bar indicates absorbance of 0.044. Two consecutive sweeps are recorded; the duration of each sweep is about 10 s.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Solid line, experimentally determined anomalous dispersion of rhodopsin. Dashed line, anomalous dispersion of rhodopsin calculated by use of the Davidov formalism. Dotted line, anomalous dispersion of rhodopsin calculated by use of Kramers-Kronig formaliism.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Solid line, experimental absorption spectrum α of rhodopsin from Ref. 10. Dashed line, fit of the gaussian-shape curve given by the Davidov theory to the experimental curve.

Equations (17)

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I I 0 = a 2 + b 2 - 2 a b cos [ 2 π ( m r + m c ) ] 2 [ 1 - cos ( 2 π m c ) ] ,
birefringence = n - n = ( λ ) ( m r ) ( path length ) .
n = - 4 3 ( n - n ) .
f ( x ) = 1 π i P - f ( x ) d x x - x ,
D ( x ) = 1 π P - A ( x ) d x x - x
A ( x ) = 1 π P - D ( x ) d x x - x .
D ( x ) = 2 π P 0 x A ( x ) d x x 2 - x 2 .
n ( ω ) = c ln 10 π P 0 α ( ω ) d ω ω 2 - ω 2 .
n ( ω ) = c ln 10 π P 1 100 α ( ω ) Δ ω ω 2 - ω 2 .
α = 2 K ω / c ln 10 ,
A = 1.33 × 10 - 3 ,             Ω = 3.75 × 10 15 / s ,
ω 1 / 2 = 3.44 × 10 15 / s .
n = 2 ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 A v exp ( - v 2 ln 2 ) .
1 2 ( a + b a - b a - b a + b ) ,
( m 1 m 2 m 2 m 1 ) ,             m 1 = 1 2 ( 1 + e - i 2 π m ) , m 2 = - 1 2 ( 1 - e - i 2 π m ) ,
( 0 0 0 1 ) .
( emerging vector ) = ( analyzer matrix ) ( compensator retardation matrix ) × ( outer - segment retardation matrix ) ( outer - segment dichroism matrix ) ( incoming vector ) .