Abstract

The effect of dividing-strip width (sample proximity) upon sensitivity to suprathreshold and threshold color differences is explored by three methods that involve ratio comparisons, liminal determinations, and repeated color matchings. The results suggest, in general, that sample separation impairs lightness discrimination more than chromaticness discrimination and that it may be necessary to introduce a proximity factor into color-difference formulas when evaluating threshold or small-size color differences.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 896 (1974).
  2. D. B. Judd, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 5, 1161 (1930).
  3. D. B. Judd, Textile Res. X, 253, 292 (1939).
  4. D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 52, 418 (1939).
  5. R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 509 (1942).
  6. A. C. Traub, The proximity factor in Judd's color difference formula (Ph. D. thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1952).
  7. A. C. Traub and I. Balinkin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 755 (1961).
  8. A. R. Robertson, Proceedings of 18th Session of CIE, London, 1975 (Bureau Central, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 4 Av. du Recteur Poincaré, 75-Paris 16e., France, 1976), Paper No. 10.
  9. J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954), p. 125.
  10. G. Wyszecki and G. H. Fielder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1135 (1971).
  11. G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1319 (1965).
  12. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 1152.
  13. B. R. Bellamy and S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 465 (1942).
  14. It is difficult to draw any finer comparisons between the two studies, because the same Munsell colors were not employed as stimuli. There are two exceptions, however; two color centers, 5Y 8/8 and N6, were used in both studies. For the former, Bellamy and Newhall obtained a hue limen of 0. 67, a chroma limen of 0. 31, and a value limen of 0. 04. We obtained a hue limen of 0. 30 a chroma limen of 0. 16, and a value limen of 0. 05. The agreement therefore in this case is poor. For the achromatic sample, Bellamy and Newhall obtained a value limen of 0. 023 and we obtained 0. 024. The agreement therefore in this case is very good.
  15. H. R. Davidson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 104 (1951).
  16. A. R. Robertson (personal communication).
  17. The size of elliptical cross sections of ellipsoids probably changes with test-field-luminance level. For instance, the observations of W. R. J. Brown [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 684 (1951)] suggest that ellipses increase in size as test-field luminance decreases.
  18. See, however Ref. 10, footnote 14, p. 1152.
  19. These values actually correspond to the average proportional increase of the square root of the ellipse area. The square root of the ellipse area was taken so that the increase could be compared with the luminance increase (a linear change).
  20. Only a small increase of ellipse area and ΔY/Y size was found for the N6/ color center. This may be due to a crispening effect, because its tristimulus values were almost identical to those of the surround color. Or, perhaps the surround counteracted the effect of the dividing-strip width by appearing as an extension of the test color.
  21. D. L. MacAdam, Rev. Opt. 28, 172 (1949); Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 231 (1949); in Color Metrics, (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, Soesterberg, 1972), p. 160.
  22. D. L. MacAdam, in American Institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 6–149.
  23. G. Wyszecki, Farbe 14, 67 (1965).

Balinkin, I.

A. C. Traub and I. Balinkin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 755 (1961).

Bellamy, B. R.

B. R. Bellamy and S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 465 (1942).

Brown, W. R. J.

The size of elliptical cross sections of ellipsoids probably changes with test-field-luminance level. For instance, the observations of W. R. J. Brown [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 684 (1951)] suggest that ellipses increase in size as test-field luminance decreases.

Davidson, H. R.

H. R. Davidson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 104 (1951).

Fielder, G. H.

G. Wyszecki and G. H. Fielder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1135 (1971).

Guilford, J. P.

J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954), p. 125.

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 509 (1942).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 5, 1161 (1930).

D. B. Judd, Textile Res. X, 253, 292 (1939).

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 52, 418 (1939).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, Rev. Opt. 28, 172 (1949); Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 231 (1949); in Color Metrics, (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, Soesterberg, 1972), p. 160.

D. L. MacAdam, in American Institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 6–149.

Newhall, S. M.

B. R. Bellamy and S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 465 (1942).

Robertson, A. R.

A. R. Robertson (personal communication).

A. R. Robertson, Proceedings of 18th Session of CIE, London, 1975 (Bureau Central, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 4 Av. du Recteur Poincaré, 75-Paris 16e., France, 1976), Paper No. 10.

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 1152.

Traub, A. C.

A. C. Traub, The proximity factor in Judd's color difference formula (Ph. D. thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1952).

A. C. Traub and I. Balinkin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 755 (1961).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and G. H. Fielder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1135 (1971).

G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 896 (1974).

G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1319 (1965).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 1152.

G. Wyszecki, Farbe 14, 67 (1965).

Other (23)

G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 896 (1974).

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 5, 1161 (1930).

D. B. Judd, Textile Res. X, 253, 292 (1939).

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 52, 418 (1939).

R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 509 (1942).

A. C. Traub, The proximity factor in Judd's color difference formula (Ph. D. thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1952).

A. C. Traub and I. Balinkin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 755 (1961).

A. R. Robertson, Proceedings of 18th Session of CIE, London, 1975 (Bureau Central, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 4 Av. du Recteur Poincaré, 75-Paris 16e., France, 1976), Paper No. 10.

J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954), p. 125.

G. Wyszecki and G. H. Fielder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1135 (1971).

G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1319 (1965).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 1152.

B. R. Bellamy and S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 465 (1942).

It is difficult to draw any finer comparisons between the two studies, because the same Munsell colors were not employed as stimuli. There are two exceptions, however; two color centers, 5Y 8/8 and N6, were used in both studies. For the former, Bellamy and Newhall obtained a hue limen of 0. 67, a chroma limen of 0. 31, and a value limen of 0. 04. We obtained a hue limen of 0. 30 a chroma limen of 0. 16, and a value limen of 0. 05. The agreement therefore in this case is poor. For the achromatic sample, Bellamy and Newhall obtained a value limen of 0. 023 and we obtained 0. 024. The agreement therefore in this case is very good.

H. R. Davidson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 104 (1951).

A. R. Robertson (personal communication).

The size of elliptical cross sections of ellipsoids probably changes with test-field-luminance level. For instance, the observations of W. R. J. Brown [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 684 (1951)] suggest that ellipses increase in size as test-field luminance decreases.

See, however Ref. 10, footnote 14, p. 1152.

These values actually correspond to the average proportional increase of the square root of the ellipse area. The square root of the ellipse area was taken so that the increase could be compared with the luminance increase (a linear change).

Only a small increase of ellipse area and ΔY/Y size was found for the N6/ color center. This may be due to a crispening effect, because its tristimulus values were almost identical to those of the surround color. Or, perhaps the surround counteracted the effect of the dividing-strip width by appearing as an extension of the test color.

D. L. MacAdam, Rev. Opt. 28, 172 (1949); Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 231 (1949); in Color Metrics, (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, Soesterberg, 1972), p. 160.

D. L. MacAdam, in American Institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 6–149.

G. Wyszecki, Farbe 14, 67 (1965).

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