Abstract

The method of atomic-resonance fluorescence has been applied to the detection of very small concentrations of radioactive <sup>20</sup>Na atoms (< 3 × 10<sup>9</sup> m<sup>-3</sup>). The <sup>20</sup>Na isotope is produced by the reaction <sup>20</sup>Ne(<i>p</i>,<i>n</i>)<sup>20</sup>Na by passing a 20 MeV proton beam through a neon gas target of density 3.5 × 10<sup>24</sup> atoms/m<sup>3</sup>. A beam of a continuous-wave dye laser tuned to the D2 line of sodium is transmitted through the production region and the fluorescence light is detected by means of photon counting. A digital synchronous-detection technique has been applied to measure the time-dependent behavior of the <sup>20</sup>Na atom density shortly after a proton irradiation. This behavior is determined both by radioactive decay and by diffusion of the atoms out of the production region. The absolute <sup>20</sup>Na atom density has been estimated, using Rayleigh scattering of the laser beam on the neon gas for calibration of the optical system. The density of neutral <sup>20</sup>Na atoms appeared to be an order of magnitude lower than the density produced. The detection method has also been used to measure the temperature dependence of saturated sodium-vapor density down to 3 × 10<sup>11</sup> atoms/m<sup>3</sup> (292 K).

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  1. J. D. Winefordner and T. J. Vickers, Anal. Chem. 46, 192R (1974).
  2. L. C. J. Baghuis and H. L. Hagedoorn, Physica (Utr.) 65, 163 (1973).
  3. F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).
  4. L. C. J. Baghuis, thesis (Eindhoven University of Technology, 1974).
  5. N. Ioli and F. Strumia, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Pumping and Atomic Line shape OPαLS, edited by T. Skalinski (Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warsaw, 1969), p. 253.
  6. T. V. George, L. Goldstein, L. Slama, and M. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. 137, A369 (1965).
  7. A. V. Phelps, Phys. Rev. 114, 1011 (1959).
  8. H. J. Besch, U. Köpf, and E. W. Otten, Phys. Lett. 25B, 120 (1967).
  9. N. Ioli and F. Strumia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).
  10. A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Chemical Elements (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1963), pp. 128–137.
  11. W. M. Fairbank, Jr., T. W. Hänsch, and A. L. Schawlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 199 (1975).

Baghuis, L. C. J.

L. C. J. Baghuis, thesis (Eindhoven University of Technology, 1974).

L. C. J. Baghuis and H. L. Hagedoorn, Physica (Utr.) 65, 163 (1973).

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

Besch, H. J.

H. J. Besch, U. Köpf, and E. W. Otten, Phys. Lett. 25B, 120 (1967).

Coolen, F. C. M.

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

Fairbank, Jr., W. M.

W. M. Fairbank, Jr., T. W. Hänsch, and A. L. Schawlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 199 (1975).

George, T. V.

T. V. George, L. Goldstein, L. Slama, and M. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. 137, A369 (1965).

Goldstein, L.

T. V. George, L. Goldstein, L. Slama, and M. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. 137, A369 (1965).

Hagedoorn, H. L.

L. C. J. Baghuis and H. L. Hagedoorn, Physica (Utr.) 65, 163 (1973).

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

Hänsch, T. W.

W. M. Fairbank, Jr., T. W. Hänsch, and A. L. Schawlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 199 (1975).

Ioli, N.

N. Ioli and F. Strumia, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Pumping and Atomic Line shape OPαLS, edited by T. Skalinski (Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warsaw, 1969), p. 253.

N. Ioli and F. Strumia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).

Köpf, U.

H. J. Besch, U. Köpf, and E. W. Otten, Phys. Lett. 25B, 120 (1967).

Nesmeyanov, A. N.

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Chemical Elements (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1963), pp. 128–137.

Otten, E. W.

H. J. Besch, U. Köpf, and E. W. Otten, Phys. Lett. 25B, 120 (1967).

Phelps, A. V.

A. V. Phelps, Phys. Rev. 114, 1011 (1959).

Schawlow, A. L.

W. M. Fairbank, Jr., T. W. Hänsch, and A. L. Schawlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 199 (1975).

Slama, L.

T. V. George, L. Goldstein, L. Slama, and M. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. 137, A369 (1965).

Strumia, F.

N. Ioli and F. Strumia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).

N. Ioli and F. Strumia, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Pumping and Atomic Line shape OPαLS, edited by T. Skalinski (Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warsaw, 1969), p. 253.

van der Heide, J. A.

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

Vickers, T. J.

J. D. Winefordner and T. J. Vickers, Anal. Chem. 46, 192R (1974).

Winefordner, J. D.

J. D. Winefordner and T. J. Vickers, Anal. Chem. 46, 192R (1974).

Yokoyama, M.

T. V. George, L. Goldstein, L. Slama, and M. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. 137, A369 (1965).

Other

J. D. Winefordner and T. J. Vickers, Anal. Chem. 46, 192R (1974).

L. C. J. Baghuis and H. L. Hagedoorn, Physica (Utr.) 65, 163 (1973).

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

L. C. J. Baghuis, thesis (Eindhoven University of Technology, 1974).

N. Ioli and F. Strumia, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Pumping and Atomic Line shape OPαLS, edited by T. Skalinski (Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warsaw, 1969), p. 253.

T. V. George, L. Goldstein, L. Slama, and M. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. 137, A369 (1965).

A. V. Phelps, Phys. Rev. 114, 1011 (1959).

H. J. Besch, U. Köpf, and E. W. Otten, Phys. Lett. 25B, 120 (1967).

N. Ioli and F. Strumia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Chemical Elements (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1963), pp. 128–137.

W. M. Fairbank, Jr., T. W. Hänsch, and A. L. Schawlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 199 (1975).

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