Abstract

The refractive index of evaporated PbI2 films, in the red region of the visible spectrum, can be reduced up to 18% by exposure to 488 nm light at film temperatures of 150–180 °C. Absorption in the same region remains very small throughout the process, until a temperature-dependent exposure threshold is reached, then rises rapidly due to scattering by photolysis-produced Pb agglomerates. For exposures below this threshold, localized band-gap states and/or bounded-plasma effects in the small Pb agglomerates give rise to an absorption band at 520 < λ < 580 nm, which causes the large refractive-index change. The photolysis in the polycrystalline films is uniform through the film rather than concentrated near the free surface, as in single crystals.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 280, 560 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. E. Dugan and H. K. Henisch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 971 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Harbeke, F. Bassani, and E. Tosatti, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Warsaw, edited by L. Sosnowski (Elsevier, New York, 1972), p. 163.
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    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Levy, A. Mercier, and J. P. Voitchovsky, Solid State Commun. 15, 819 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. I. Dawood, A. J. Forty, and M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 284, 272 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Verwey, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 163 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Arends and J. F. Verwey, Phys. Status Solidi 23, 137 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. R. Tubbs and A. J. Forty, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 1553 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Tubbs, M. J. Beesley, and H. Foster, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 197 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. M. Ibrahim and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1622 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. C. Mundy, J. A. Roux, and A. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1593 (1974); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 974E (1975).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (3)

1972 (1)

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

J. F. Verwey, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 163 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

C. Gähwiller and G. Harbeke, Phys. Rev. 185, 1141 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Tubbs, M. J. Beesley, and H. Foster, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 197 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

J. Arends and J. F. Verwey, Phys. Status Solidi 23, 137 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Dugan and H. K. Henisch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 971 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. I. Dawood, A. J. Forty, and M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 284, 272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 280, 560 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Tubbs and A. J. Forty, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 1553 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Arends, J.

J. Arends and J. F. Verwey, Phys. Status Solidi 23, 137 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Ibrahim and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1622 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bassani, F.

G. Harbeke, F. Bassani, and E. Tosatti, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Warsaw, edited by L. Sosnowski (Elsevier, New York, 1972), p. 163.

Beesley, M. J.

M. R. Tubbs, M. J. Beesley, and H. Foster, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 197 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Dawood, R. I.

R. I. Dawood, A. J. Forty, and M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 284, 272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, A. E.

A. E. Dugan and H. K. Henisch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 971 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Forty, A. J.

R. I. Dawood, A. J. Forty, and M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 284, 272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Tubbs and A. J. Forty, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 1553 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Foster, H.

M. R. Tubbs, M. J. Beesley, and H. Foster, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 197 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gähwiller, C.

C. Gähwiller and G. Harbeke, Phys. Rev. 185, 1141 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gossick, B. R.

B. R. Gossick, in Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Electromagnetic Scattering, edited by M. Kerker (Pergamon, New York, 1963), p. 434.

Harbeke, G.

C. Gähwiller and G. Harbeke, Phys. Rev. 185, 1141 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Harbeke, F. Bassani, and E. Tosatti, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Warsaw, edited by L. Sosnowski (Elsevier, New York, 1972), p. 163.

Henisch, H. K.

A. E. Dugan and H. K. Henisch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 971 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, M. M.

Levy, F.

F. Levy, A. Mercier, and J. P. Voitchovsky, Solid State Commun. 15, 819 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mercier, A.

F. Levy, A. Mercier, and J. P. Voitchovsky, Solid State Commun. 15, 819 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mundy, W. C.

Roux, J. A.

Smith, A. M.

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tosatti, E.

G. Harbeke, F. Bassani, and E. Tosatti, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Warsaw, edited by L. Sosnowski (Elsevier, New York, 1972), p. 163.

Tubbs, M. R.

M. R. Tubbs, M. J. Beesley, and H. Foster, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 197 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Dawood, A. J. Forty, and M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 284, 272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Tubbs and A. J. Forty, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 1553 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 280, 560 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, F.

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Verwey, J. F.

J. F. Verwey, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 163 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Arends and J. F. Verwey, Phys. Status Solidi 23, 137 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Voitchovsky, J. P.

F. Levy, A. Mercier, and J. P. Voitchovsky, Solid State Commun. 15, 819 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. R. Tubbs and A. J. Forty, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 1553 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) (1)

M. R. Tubbs, M. J. Beesley, and H. Foster, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (J. Phys. D.) 2, 197 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (2)

A. E. Dugan and H. K. Henisch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 971 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Verwey, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 163 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. Gähwiller and G. Harbeke, Phys. Rev. 185, 1141 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

J. Arends and J. F. Verwey, Phys. Status Solidi 23, 137 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A (2)

M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 280, 560 (1964).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Dawood, A. J. Forty, and M. R. Tubbs, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 284, 272 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

F. Levy, A. Mercier, and J. P. Voitchovsky, Solid State Commun. 15, 819 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Harbeke, F. Bassani, and E. Tosatti, in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Warsaw, edited by L. Sosnowski (Elsevier, New York, 1972), p. 163.

B. R. Gossick, in Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Electromagnetic Scattering, edited by M. Kerker (Pergamon, New York, 1963), p. 434.

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Figures (5)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

n and k vs λ for as-evaporated PbI2 films. Dashed line, Tubb’s single-crystal results. Dotted line, Dugan and Henisch results.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Dependence of n (Fig. 2a) and k (Fig. 2b) on time of exposure to ~ 4 mW/cm2 of 488 nm light, at a film temperature of 165 °C, with measuring wavelength in nm as a parameter.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Long-term dependence of n and k, measured at 633 nm, on time of exposure to ~ mW/cm2 of 488 nm light, at a film temperature of 165 °C.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Refractive-index change at 633 nm versus total exposure (incident power held constant at ~ 4 mW/cm2) for various film temperatures (in °C).

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Spectral dependence of k for various irradiation times. Power incident at 488 nm is held constant at ~ 4 mW/cm2. — 0 min, – – 15 min, – · – 30 min, ⋯⋯ 60 min.