Abstract

Propagation into a homogeneous plasma of a laser beam at irradiances higher than 1/500 of the relativistic threshold can result in self-focusing due to the highly sensitive relativistic dependence of the optical constants on laser irradiance. Electron densities slightly less than the relativistic-cutoff densities are required. Simultaneously with the self-focusing, it is also possible to achieve a dielectric increase (swelling) of laser energy density in the plasma that could reach 1/3 of its maximum value. In prepulsed plasmas, generated by Nd-glass-laser pulses of 3 × 10<sup>16</sup> W/cm<sup>2</sup>, relativistic diffraction-limited self-focusing can generate relativistic electron-oscillation energies and hence pair production.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. G. Litvak, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 629 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 344 (1970)].
  2. M. S. Sodha, Repts. Prog. Phys. 37, 621 (1974).
  3. H. Hora, Z. Physik 226, 156 (1969); a derivation based on electron motion was given by Claire Ellen Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).
  4. The nonlinear force is the electrodynamic part of the gradient of the momentum-flux-density of a more general form than used by Landau and Lifshitz (Ref. 5). The generalization with respect to dispersion was confirmed by consistency with the derivation from other models, e.g., the two-fluid model (Ref. 6). Because Landau and Lifshitz (Ref. 5) used the expression "ponderomotive force" for gas dynamic (thermokinetic) and other forces, the expression "nonlinear force" for its electrodynamic part may be preferred with respect to its quadratic terms. Shearer and Eddleman (Ref. 7) specialized the general derivation to reproduce the electric term (without the magnetic term) of the nonlinear force, as used in microwave theory (Ref. 8), from which I needed further specializations to derive the general expression (Ref. 6).
  5. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), p. 242.
  6. H. Hora, Phys. Fluids 12, 182 (1969).
  7. J. W. Shearer and J. L. Eddleman, Phys. Fluids 16, 1522 (1973).
  8. H. Motz and C. J. H. Watson, in Advances in Electronics, Vol. 23, edited by L. Marton (Academic, New York, 1967), p. 153.
  9. A. Schlüter, Plasma Phys. 10, 471 (1968).
  10. H. Hora, D. Pfirsch, and A. Schlüter, Z. Naturforschung 22a, 278 (1967).
  11. F. F. Chen, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3A, p. 291.
  12. V. V. Korobkin and A. J. Alcock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1433 (1968).
  13. P. Kaw, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 16 (1969).
  14. A. J. Palmer, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1972), Vol. 2, p. 367.
  15. R. L. Dewar, Phys. Fluids 16, 431 (1973).
  16. M. S. Sodha, A. K. Chakravarti, W. P. Phadke, G. D. Gautama, and I. Rattan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 121 (1972).
  17. T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054; Phys. Res. 150, 1060 (1966).
  18. A. Schlüter, Z. Naturforschung 5a, 72 (1950).
  19. R. Lüst, Z. Astrophysik 57, 67 (1953).
  20. H. Hora, Laser Plasmas and Nuclear Energy (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 47.
  21. H. Hora, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974) Vol. 3B, p. 803.
  22. L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1962).
  23. H. Hora, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1970), Vol. 1, p. 427.
  24. N. G. Basov and O. N. Krokhin, in Third International Quantum Electronic Conference, edited by N. Bloembergen (Academic, New Yorlk, 1963).
  25. T. W. Johnston and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Fluids 16, 722 (1973).
  26. J. M. Dawson and C. Oberman, Phys. Fluids 5, 517 (1962).
  27. H. Hora and H. Wilhelm, Nucl. Fusion 10, 111 (1970).
  28. F. Lindl and P. Kaw, Phys. Fluids 14, 371 (1972).
  29. R. B. White and F. F. Chen, Plasma Phys. 16, 587 (1974).
  30. H. Hora, Atomkernenergie 24, 187 (1974).
  31. H. Hora, Opto-Electronics 5, 491 (1973).
  32. J. L. Hughes, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomnena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 849.
  33. J. W. Shearer, J. Garrison, J. Wong, and J. E. Swain, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 803.
  34. J. H. Nuckolls, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 397.
  35. K. Brueckner, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 427.

Alcock, A. J.

V. V. Korobkin and A. J. Alcock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1433 (1968).

Basov, N. G.

N. G. Basov and O. N. Krokhin, in Third International Quantum Electronic Conference, edited by N. Bloembergen (Academic, New Yorlk, 1963).

Brueckner, K.

K. Brueckner, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 427.

Chakravarti, A. K.

M. S. Sodha, A. K. Chakravarti, W. P. Phadke, G. D. Gautama, and I. Rattan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 121 (1972).

Chen, F. F.

F. F. Chen, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3A, p. 291.

R. B. White and F. F. Chen, Plasma Phys. 16, 587 (1974).

Dawson, J. M.

T. W. Johnston and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Fluids 16, 722 (1973).

J. M. Dawson and C. Oberman, Phys. Fluids 5, 517 (1962).

Dewar, R. L.

R. L. Dewar, Phys. Fluids 16, 431 (1973).

Eddleman, J. L.

J. W. Shearer and J. L. Eddleman, Phys. Fluids 16, 1522 (1973).

Garrison, J.

J. W. Shearer, J. Garrison, J. Wong, and J. E. Swain, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 803.

Gautama, G. D.

M. S. Sodha, A. K. Chakravarti, W. P. Phadke, G. D. Gautama, and I. Rattan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 121 (1972).

Hora, H.

H. Hora, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1970), Vol. 1, p. 427.

H. Hora, Laser Plasmas and Nuclear Energy (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 47.

H. Hora, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974) Vol. 3B, p. 803.

H. Hora, Phys. Fluids 12, 182 (1969).

H. Hora, Z. Physik 226, 156 (1969); a derivation based on electron motion was given by Claire Ellen Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).

H. Hora, D. Pfirsch, and A. Schlüter, Z. Naturforschung 22a, 278 (1967).

H. Hora, Atomkernenergie 24, 187 (1974).

H. Hora, Opto-Electronics 5, 491 (1973).

H. Hora and H. Wilhelm, Nucl. Fusion 10, 111 (1970).

Hughes, J. L.

J. L. Hughes, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomnena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 849.

Johnston, T. W.

T. W. Johnston and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Fluids 16, 722 (1973).

Kaw, P.

P. Kaw, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 16 (1969).

F. Lindl and P. Kaw, Phys. Fluids 14, 371 (1972).

Kibble, T. W. B.

T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054; Phys. Res. 150, 1060 (1966).

Korobkin, V. V.

V. V. Korobkin and A. J. Alcock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1433 (1968).

Krokhin, O. N.

N. G. Basov and O. N. Krokhin, in Third International Quantum Electronic Conference, edited by N. Bloembergen (Academic, New Yorlk, 1963).

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), p. 242.

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), p. 242.

Lindl, F.

F. Lindl and P. Kaw, Phys. Fluids 14, 371 (1972).

Litvak, A. G.

A. G. Litvak, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 629 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 344 (1970)].

Lüst, R.

R. Lüst, Z. Astrophysik 57, 67 (1953).

Motz, H.

H. Motz and C. J. H. Watson, in Advances in Electronics, Vol. 23, edited by L. Marton (Academic, New York, 1967), p. 153.

Nuckolls, J. H.

J. H. Nuckolls, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 397.

Oberman, C.

J. M. Dawson and C. Oberman, Phys. Fluids 5, 517 (1962).

Palmer, A. J.

A. J. Palmer, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1972), Vol. 2, p. 367.

Pfirsch, D.

H. Hora, D. Pfirsch, and A. Schlüter, Z. Naturforschung 22a, 278 (1967).

Phadke, W. P.

M. S. Sodha, A. K. Chakravarti, W. P. Phadke, G. D. Gautama, and I. Rattan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 121 (1972).

Rattan, I.

M. S. Sodha, A. K. Chakravarti, W. P. Phadke, G. D. Gautama, and I. Rattan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 121 (1972).

Schlüter, A.

A. Schlüter, Plasma Phys. 10, 471 (1968).

A. Schlüter, Z. Naturforschung 5a, 72 (1950).

H. Hora, D. Pfirsch, and A. Schlüter, Z. Naturforschung 22a, 278 (1967).

Shearer, J. W.

J. W. Shearer and J. L. Eddleman, Phys. Fluids 16, 1522 (1973).

J. W. Shearer, J. Garrison, J. Wong, and J. E. Swain, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 803.

Sodha, M. S.

M. S. Sodha, Repts. Prog. Phys. 37, 621 (1974).

M. S. Sodha, A. K. Chakravarti, W. P. Phadke, G. D. Gautama, and I. Rattan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 121 (1972).

Spitzer, L.

L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1962).

Swain, J. E.

J. W. Shearer, J. Garrison, J. Wong, and J. E. Swain, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 803.

Watson, C. J. H.

H. Motz and C. J. H. Watson, in Advances in Electronics, Vol. 23, edited by L. Marton (Academic, New York, 1967), p. 153.

White, R. B.

R. B. White and F. F. Chen, Plasma Phys. 16, 587 (1974).

Wilhelm, H.

H. Hora and H. Wilhelm, Nucl. Fusion 10, 111 (1970).

Wong, J.

J. W. Shearer, J. Garrison, J. Wong, and J. E. Swain, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 803.

Other (35)

A. G. Litvak, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 629 (1969) [Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 344 (1970)].

M. S. Sodha, Repts. Prog. Phys. 37, 621 (1974).

H. Hora, Z. Physik 226, 156 (1969); a derivation based on electron motion was given by Claire Ellen Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).

The nonlinear force is the electrodynamic part of the gradient of the momentum-flux-density of a more general form than used by Landau and Lifshitz (Ref. 5). The generalization with respect to dispersion was confirmed by consistency with the derivation from other models, e.g., the two-fluid model (Ref. 6). Because Landau and Lifshitz (Ref. 5) used the expression "ponderomotive force" for gas dynamic (thermokinetic) and other forces, the expression "nonlinear force" for its electrodynamic part may be preferred with respect to its quadratic terms. Shearer and Eddleman (Ref. 7) specialized the general derivation to reproduce the electric term (without the magnetic term) of the nonlinear force, as used in microwave theory (Ref. 8), from which I needed further specializations to derive the general expression (Ref. 6).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, Oxford, 1966), p. 242.

H. Hora, Phys. Fluids 12, 182 (1969).

J. W. Shearer and J. L. Eddleman, Phys. Fluids 16, 1522 (1973).

H. Motz and C. J. H. Watson, in Advances in Electronics, Vol. 23, edited by L. Marton (Academic, New York, 1967), p. 153.

A. Schlüter, Plasma Phys. 10, 471 (1968).

H. Hora, D. Pfirsch, and A. Schlüter, Z. Naturforschung 22a, 278 (1967).

F. F. Chen, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3A, p. 291.

V. V. Korobkin and A. J. Alcock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1433 (1968).

P. Kaw, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 16 (1969).

A. J. Palmer, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1972), Vol. 2, p. 367.

R. L. Dewar, Phys. Fluids 16, 431 (1973).

M. S. Sodha, A. K. Chakravarti, W. P. Phadke, G. D. Gautama, and I. Rattan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 121 (1972).

T. W. B. Kibble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054; Phys. Res. 150, 1060 (1966).

A. Schlüter, Z. Naturforschung 5a, 72 (1950).

R. Lüst, Z. Astrophysik 57, 67 (1953).

H. Hora, Laser Plasmas and Nuclear Energy (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 47.

H. Hora, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974) Vol. 3B, p. 803.

L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1962).

H. Hora, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1970), Vol. 1, p. 427.

N. G. Basov and O. N. Krokhin, in Third International Quantum Electronic Conference, edited by N. Bloembergen (Academic, New Yorlk, 1963).

T. W. Johnston and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Fluids 16, 722 (1973).

J. M. Dawson and C. Oberman, Phys. Fluids 5, 517 (1962).

H. Hora and H. Wilhelm, Nucl. Fusion 10, 111 (1970).

F. Lindl and P. Kaw, Phys. Fluids 14, 371 (1972).

R. B. White and F. F. Chen, Plasma Phys. 16, 587 (1974).

H. Hora, Atomkernenergie 24, 187 (1974).

H. Hora, Opto-Electronics 5, 491 (1973).

J. L. Hughes, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomnena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 849.

J. W. Shearer, J. Garrison, J. Wong, and J. E. Swain, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 803.

J. H. Nuckolls, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 397.

K. Brueckner, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, edited by H. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1974), Vol. 3B, p. 427.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.