Abstract

Resolution thresholds for Landolt C’s and for vernier targets remain the same whether the target is stationary or moving with horizontal or vertical velocities of up to 2.5°/s for foveal presentations lasting 0.1 and 0.2 s. Oblique target motions are tolerated only up to 1°/s. Because visual pursuit is ruled out by randomization of direction of motion and by the short exposure, it is concluded that a stationary retinal image is not a prerequisite for good acuity.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biological Symposia VII, 117 (1942).
  2. F. Ratliff, J. Expt. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. T. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 769 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), Ch. 2.
  5. G. Westheimer, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 16, 359 (1965). Also in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/4 Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), Ch. 7.
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. A. Riggs, J. C. Armington, and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. S. Baron and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 212 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. L. Finney, Probit Analysis (The University Press, Cambridge, 1952).
  9. G. Westheimer, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 932 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. N. Berry, J. Expt. Psychol. 38, 708 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 740 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and S. M. Mayne, J. Physiol. 145, 98 (1959).
  13. E. Hering, Ber. Math. -Phys. Cl. d. Königl. Sächs, Gesell. Wiss. Leipzig Teil16–24 (1899).

1973 (1)

1965 (1)

G. Westheimer, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 16, 359 (1965). Also in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/4 Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), Ch. 7.
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

1959 (1)

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and S. M. Mayne, J. Physiol. 145, 98 (1959).

1957 (1)

1954 (2)

1952 (1)

F. Ratliff, J. Expt. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

R. N. Berry, J. Expt. Psychol. 38, 708 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biological Symposia VII, 117 (1942).

1899 (1)

E. Hering, Ber. Math. -Phys. Cl. d. Königl. Sächs, Gesell. Wiss. Leipzig Teil16–24 (1899).

Armington, J. C.

Baron, W. S.

Berry, R. N.

R. N. Berry, J. Expt. Psychol. 38, 708 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and S. M. Mayne, J. Physiol. 145, 98 (1959).

Fender, D. H.

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and S. M. Mayne, J. Physiol. 145, 98 (1959).

Finney, D. L.

D. L. Finney, Probit Analysis (The University Press, Cambridge, 1952).

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Ber. Math. -Phys. Cl. d. Königl. Sächs, Gesell. Wiss. Leipzig Teil16–24 (1899).

Keesey, U. T.

Krauskopf, J.

Marshall, W. H.

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biological Symposia VII, 117 (1942).

Mayne, S. M.

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and S. M. Mayne, J. Physiol. 145, 98 (1959).

Ratliff, F.

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs, J. C. Armington, and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), Ch. 2.

Talbot, S. A.

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biological Symposia VII, 117 (1942).

Westheimer, G.

W. S. Baron and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 212 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 16, 359 (1965). Also in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/4 Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), Ch. 7.
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 932 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Psychol. (1)

G. Westheimer, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 16, 359 (1965). Also in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/4 Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), Ch. 7.
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

G. Westheimer, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 932 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Math. -Phys. Cl. d. Königl. Sächs, Gesell. Wiss. Leipzig Teil (1)

E. Hering, Ber. Math. -Phys. Cl. d. Königl. Sächs, Gesell. Wiss. Leipzig Teil16–24 (1899).

Biological Symposia VII (1)

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biological Symposia VII, 117 (1942).

J. Expt. Psychol. (2)

F. Ratliff, J. Expt. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Berry, J. Expt. Psychol. 38, 708 (1948).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (1)

R. W. Ditchburn, D. H. Fender, and S. M. Mayne, J. Physiol. 145, 98 (1959).

Other (2)

L. A. Riggs, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), Ch. 2.

D. L. Finney, Probit Analysis (The University Press, Cambridge, 1952).

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Figures (6)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Vernier-resolution thresholds as a function of horizontal target velocity. △–△ 200 ms exposures, □- - - -□ 100 ms exposures. Foveal presentation, binocular vision, natural pupils, medium photopic luminance. Subjects LK, SPM.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Landolt C resolution as a function of horizontal target velocity for a 200 ms exposure. Thresholds are given in terms of gap size for which responses are 75% correct. Gaps are randomly up, right, down, or left.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Vernier-resolution thresholds (detection of horizontal offsets of vertical lines) as a function of vertical target velocity for a 200 ms exposure. △–△ observer LK; ▲- - - -▲ SM.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Vernier-resolution thresholds (detection of horizontal offsets of vertical lines) as a function of target velocity in an oblique direction. Targets moved randomly along the 45° or 135° meridians either up or down for a 200 ms exposure. △–△ LK; ▲- - - -▲ SM.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Landolt C resolution as a function of horizontal target velocity for a 200 ms exposure. In one set of data (normal C ▽–▽), the gap in the C was either up, right, down or left, in the other set (oblique C ◆- - - -◆) either up and right, down and right, down and left, or up and left.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Resolution threshold for a Landolt C with a gap in one of the 4 oblique directions, as a function of horizontal target velocity (horizontal motion ◆ - - - - ◆) and of target velocity randomly in one of the four oblique directions (oblique motion ◇–◇) for a 200 ms exposure.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Vernier threshold for horizontal target motion, 200 ms duration.