Abstract

A two-dimensional, time-dependent analysis of the mammalian retina is presented. A computer simulation of experimental data considers ganglion-cell activity as a two-dimensional process. The properties of the simulation model were examined with several input stimuli. Circular receptive fields enhance not only borders, but other spatial complexities, such as ends of lines and angles. The enhancement is remarkably insensitive to the shape of receptive fields. The processing of the input picture by on-center and off-center receptive fields is complementary but the division of labor varies with the task.

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  1. G. von Békésy, Sensory Inhibition (Princeton U. P., Princeton, New Jersey, 1967).
  2. F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965).
  3. R. W. Rodieck, Vision Res. 5, 583 (1965).
  4. K. Fukushima, IEEE Trans. SSC-5, 322 (1969).
  5. K. Fukushima, Kybernetik 7, 153 (1970).
  6. P. Gouras, J. Physiol. 192, 747 (1967).
  7. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. 154, 572 (1960).
  8. S. W. Kuffler, J. Neurophysiol. 16, 37 (1953).
  9. H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 137, 338 (1957).
  10. A. Fiorentini, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. 7/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 188.
  11. E. Mach, Sitzungsberichte der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 52, 303 (1865) (translation in Ref. 2).
  12. G. Baumgartner, J. L. Brown, and A. Schulz, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 1 (1965).
  13. G. von Békésy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1060 (1960).
  14. G. von Békésy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1 (1968).
  15. L. Maffei, A. Fiorentini, and L. Cervetto, J. Neurophysiol. 34, 579 (1971).
  16. R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 819 (1965).
  17. R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).
  18. D. N. Spinelli, Science 152, 1768 (1966).
  19. F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. 186, 558 (1966).
  20. H. Wässle and O. D. Creutzfeldt, J. Neurophysiol. 36, 13 (1973).
  21. R. Jung, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 627 and 796.
  22. H. B. Barlow, R. Narasimhan, and A. Rosenfeld, Science 177, 567 (1972).
  23. A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., Proc. IEEE 56, 1264 (1968).
  24. L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, J. Neurophysiol. 35, 65 (1972).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 137, 338 (1957).

H. B. Barlow, R. Narasimhan, and A. Rosenfeld, Science 177, 567 (1972).

Baumgartner, G.

G. Baumgartner, J. L. Brown, and A. Schulz, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 1 (1965).

Brown, J. L.

G. Baumgartner, J. L. Brown, and A. Schulz, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 1 (1965).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. 186, 558 (1966).

Cervetto, L.

L. Maffei, A. Fiorentini, and L. Cervetto, J. Neurophysiol. 34, 579 (1971).

Creutzfeldt, O. D.

H. Wässle and O. D. Creutzfeldt, J. Neurophysiol. 36, 13 (1973).

Fiorentini, A.

L. Maffei, A. Fiorentini, and L. Cervetto, J. Neurophysiol. 34, 579 (1971).

A. Fiorentini, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. 7/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 188.

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, J. Neurophysiol. 35, 65 (1972).

FitzHugh, R.

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 137, 338 (1957).

Fukushima, K.

K. Fukushima, IEEE Trans. SSC-5, 322 (1969).

K. Fukushima, Kybernetik 7, 153 (1970).

Gouras, P.

P. Gouras, J. Physiol. 192, 747 (1967).

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. 186, 558 (1966).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. 154, 572 (1960).

Jung, R.

R. Jung, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 627 and 796.

Kuffler, S. W.

S. W. Kuffler, J. Neurophysiol. 16, 37 (1953).

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 137, 338 (1957).

Mach, E.

E. Mach, Sitzungsberichte der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 52, 303 (1865) (translation in Ref. 2).

Maffei, L.

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, J. Neurophysiol. 35, 65 (1972).

L. Maffei, A. Fiorentini, and L. Cervetto, J. Neurophysiol. 34, 579 (1971).

Narasimhan, R.

H. B. Barlow, R. Narasimhan, and A. Rosenfeld, Science 177, 567 (1972).

Oppenheim, A. V.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., Proc. IEEE 56, 1264 (1968).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965).

Rodieck, R. W.

R. W. Rodieck, Vision Res. 5, 583 (1965).

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 819 (1965).

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

Rosenfeld, A.

H. B. Barlow, R. Narasimhan, and A. Rosenfeld, Science 177, 567 (1972).

Schafer, R. W.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., Proc. IEEE 56, 1264 (1968).

Schulz, A.

G. Baumgartner, J. L. Brown, and A. Schulz, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 1 (1965).

Spinelli, D. N.

D. N. Spinelli, Science 152, 1768 (1966).

Stockham, Jr., T. G.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., Proc. IEEE 56, 1264 (1968).

Stone, J.

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 819 (1965).

von Békésy, G.

G. von Békésy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1060 (1960).

G. von Békésy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1 (1968).

G. von Békésy, Sensory Inhibition (Princeton U. P., Princeton, New Jersey, 1967).

Wässle, H.

H. Wässle and O. D. Creutzfeldt, J. Neurophysiol. 36, 13 (1973).

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. 154, 572 (1960).

Other

G. von Békésy, Sensory Inhibition (Princeton U. P., Princeton, New Jersey, 1967).

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965).

R. W. Rodieck, Vision Res. 5, 583 (1965).

K. Fukushima, IEEE Trans. SSC-5, 322 (1969).

K. Fukushima, Kybernetik 7, 153 (1970).

P. Gouras, J. Physiol. 192, 747 (1967).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. 154, 572 (1960).

S. W. Kuffler, J. Neurophysiol. 16, 37 (1953).

H. B. Barlow, R. FitzHugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 137, 338 (1957).

A. Fiorentini, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. 7/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 188.

E. Mach, Sitzungsberichte der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 52, 303 (1865) (translation in Ref. 2).

G. Baumgartner, J. L. Brown, and A. Schulz, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 1 (1965).

G. von Békésy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1060 (1960).

G. von Békésy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1 (1968).

L. Maffei, A. Fiorentini, and L. Cervetto, J. Neurophysiol. 34, 579 (1971).

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 819 (1965).

R. W. Rodieck and J. Stone, J. Neurophysiol. 28, 833 (1965).

D. N. Spinelli, Science 152, 1768 (1966).

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. 186, 558 (1966).

H. Wässle and O. D. Creutzfeldt, J. Neurophysiol. 36, 13 (1973).

R. Jung, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 627 and 796.

H. B. Barlow, R. Narasimhan, and A. Rosenfeld, Science 177, 567 (1972).

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and T. G. Stockham, Jr., Proc. IEEE 56, 1264 (1968).

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, J. Neurophysiol. 35, 65 (1972).

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