Abstract

Exact forward photocounting distributions for a source of optical radiation with arbitrary statistics are obtained in the presence of photodetector dead time. In particular, we examine the counting and pulse-interval distributions that arise from amplitude-stabilized radiation, from chaotic radiation, and from a Van der Pol laser with arbitrary excitation. The exact dead-time-corrected Poisson distribution is graphically compared with a previous approximate result and with the uncorrected Poisson. Plots of the Bose-Einstein distribution clearly indicate the dramatic anti-bunching effects of the dead time in overcoming the inherent bunching of this distribution. A simplified approximate solution is also found for the Van der Pol laser above threshold; this result is similar to light from an amplitude-stabilized source incident on a photodetector with a gaussian-distributed dead time. Information about photodetector dead-time variation can therefore be obtained either by using an amplitude-stabilized source or by properly choosing system parameters such that irradiance fluctuations are averaged out.

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  1. L. Mandel, Proc. Phys. Soc. (Lond.) 72, 1037 (1958); 74, 233 (1959).
  2. P. L. Kelley and W. H. Kleiner, Phys. Rev. 136, A316 (1964); J. Peřina, Coherence of Light (Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, 1972).
  3. R. J. Glauber, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, edited by P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, and P. E. Tannenwald (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), p. 788.
  4. F. A. Johnson, R. Jones, T. P. McLean, and E. R. Pike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 589 (1966).
  5. J. A. Armstrong and A. W. Smith, in Progress in Optics, VI, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), p. 213.
  6. M. C. Teich and P. Diament, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 625 (1969).
  7. P. Diament and M. C. Teich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 682 (1970); 60, 1489 (1970).
  8. I. DeLotto, P. F. Manfredi, and P. Principi, Energia Nucleare (Milan) 11, 557 (1964); 11, 599 (1964).
  9. G. Bédard, Proc. Phys. Soc. (Lond.) 90, 131 (1967).
  10. W. Feller, A Volume for the Anniversary of Courant (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1948), p. 105.
  11. R. F. Chang, R. W. Detenbeck, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, Jr., and U. Hochuli, Phys. Lett. 25A, 272 (1967).
  12. H. Risken, Z. Physik 186, 85 (1965).
  13. V. Arzt, H. Haken, H. Risken, H. Sauerman, C. Schmid, and W. Weidlich, Z. Physik 197, 207 (1966).
  14. Handbook of Mathematical Functions, edited by M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Appl. Math. Ser. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1964; Dover, New York, 1965).
  15. M. Lax and M. Zwanziger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 937 (1970); Phys. Rev. A 7, 750 (1973).
  16. D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).

Alley, Jr., C. O.

R. F. Chang, R. W. Detenbeck, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, Jr., and U. Hochuli, Phys. Lett. 25A, 272 (1967).

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong and A. W. Smith, in Progress in Optics, VI, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), p. 213.

Arzt, V.

V. Arzt, H. Haken, H. Risken, H. Sauerman, C. Schmid, and W. Weidlich, Z. Physik 197, 207 (1966).

Bédard, G.

G. Bédard, Proc. Phys. Soc. (Lond.) 90, 131 (1967).

Chang, R. F.

R. F. Chang, R. W. Detenbeck, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, Jr., and U. Hochuli, Phys. Lett. 25A, 272 (1967).

Davis, W.

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).

DeLotto, I.

I. DeLotto, P. F. Manfredi, and P. Principi, Energia Nucleare (Milan) 11, 557 (1964); 11, 599 (1964).

Detenbeck, R. W.

R. F. Chang, R. W. Detenbeck, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, Jr., and U. Hochuli, Phys. Lett. 25A, 272 (1967).

Diament, P.

P. Diament and M. C. Teich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 682 (1970); 60, 1489 (1970).

M. C. Teich and P. Diament, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 625 (1969).

Feller, W.

W. Feller, A Volume for the Anniversary of Courant (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1948), p. 105.

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, edited by P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, and P. E. Tannenwald (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), p. 788.

Haken, H.

V. Arzt, H. Haken, H. Risken, H. Sauerman, C. Schmid, and W. Weidlich, Z. Physik 197, 207 (1966).

Hochuli, U.

R. F. Chang, R. W. Detenbeck, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, Jr., and U. Hochuli, Phys. Lett. 25A, 272 (1967).

Johnson, F. A.

F. A. Johnson, R. Jones, T. P. McLean, and E. R. Pike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 589 (1966).

Jones, R.

F. A. Johnson, R. Jones, T. P. McLean, and E. R. Pike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 589 (1966).

Kelley, P. L.

P. L. Kelley and W. H. Kleiner, Phys. Rev. 136, A316 (1964); J. Peřina, Coherence of Light (Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, 1972).

Kleiner, W. H.

P. L. Kelley and W. H. Kleiner, Phys. Rev. 136, A316 (1964); J. Peřina, Coherence of Light (Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, 1972).

Korenman, V.

R. F. Chang, R. W. Detenbeck, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, Jr., and U. Hochuli, Phys. Lett. 25A, 272 (1967).

Lax, M.

M. Lax and M. Zwanziger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 937 (1970); Phys. Rev. A 7, 750 (1973).

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel, Proc. Phys. Soc. (Lond.) 72, 1037 (1958); 74, 233 (1959).

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).

Manfredi, P. F.

I. DeLotto, P. F. Manfredi, and P. Principi, Energia Nucleare (Milan) 11, 557 (1964); 11, 599 (1964).

McLean, T. P.

F. A. Johnson, R. Jones, T. P. McLean, and E. R. Pike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 589 (1966).

Meltzer, D.

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).

Pike, E. R.

F. A. Johnson, R. Jones, T. P. McLean, and E. R. Pike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 589 (1966).

Principi, P.

I. DeLotto, P. F. Manfredi, and P. Principi, Energia Nucleare (Milan) 11, 557 (1964); 11, 599 (1964).

Risken, H.

H. Risken, Z. Physik 186, 85 (1965).

V. Arzt, H. Haken, H. Risken, H. Sauerman, C. Schmid, and W. Weidlich, Z. Physik 197, 207 (1966).

Sauerman, H.

V. Arzt, H. Haken, H. Risken, H. Sauerman, C. Schmid, and W. Weidlich, Z. Physik 197, 207 (1966).

Schmid, C.

V. Arzt, H. Haken, H. Risken, H. Sauerman, C. Schmid, and W. Weidlich, Z. Physik 197, 207 (1966).

Smith, A. W.

J. A. Armstrong and A. W. Smith, in Progress in Optics, VI, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), p. 213.

Teich, M. C.

P. Diament and M. C. Teich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 682 (1970); 60, 1489 (1970).

M. C. Teich and P. Diament, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 625 (1969).

Weidlich, W.

V. Arzt, H. Haken, H. Risken, H. Sauerman, C. Schmid, and W. Weidlich, Z. Physik 197, 207 (1966).

Zwanziger, M.

M. Lax and M. Zwanziger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 937 (1970); Phys. Rev. A 7, 750 (1973).

Other (16)

L. Mandel, Proc. Phys. Soc. (Lond.) 72, 1037 (1958); 74, 233 (1959).

P. L. Kelley and W. H. Kleiner, Phys. Rev. 136, A316 (1964); J. Peřina, Coherence of Light (Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, 1972).

R. J. Glauber, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, edited by P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, and P. E. Tannenwald (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), p. 788.

F. A. Johnson, R. Jones, T. P. McLean, and E. R. Pike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 589 (1966).

J. A. Armstrong and A. W. Smith, in Progress in Optics, VI, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), p. 213.

M. C. Teich and P. Diament, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 625 (1969).

P. Diament and M. C. Teich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 682 (1970); 60, 1489 (1970).

I. DeLotto, P. F. Manfredi, and P. Principi, Energia Nucleare (Milan) 11, 557 (1964); 11, 599 (1964).

G. Bédard, Proc. Phys. Soc. (Lond.) 90, 131 (1967).

W. Feller, A Volume for the Anniversary of Courant (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1948), p. 105.

R. F. Chang, R. W. Detenbeck, V. Korenman, C. O. Alley, Jr., and U. Hochuli, Phys. Lett. 25A, 272 (1967).

H. Risken, Z. Physik 186, 85 (1965).

V. Arzt, H. Haken, H. Risken, H. Sauerman, C. Schmid, and W. Weidlich, Z. Physik 197, 207 (1966).

Handbook of Mathematical Functions, edited by M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun. Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Appl. Math. Ser. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1964; Dover, New York, 1965).

M. Lax and M. Zwanziger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 937 (1970); Phys. Rev. A 7, 750 (1973).

D. Meltzer, W. Davis, and L. Mandel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 242 (1970).

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