Abstract

Values are given for construction of a diagram giving the MacAdam limits of luminous reflectance for optimal colors in the CIE 1931 colorimetric system for the illuminant D65. It is shown that the amount by which the luminous reflectance of a bluish white object color departs from the MacAdam limit for an optimal color having the same chromaticity coordinates is closely related to its visually perceived whiteness. For fluorescent colors, this deviation is designated luminous fluorescence.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 249 (1935); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 361 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. B. Judd, L. Plaza, and D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 833 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, and P. Stensby, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 240 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Obtainable from Ciba–Geigy AG, Basle, Switzerland.

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1945 (1)

1935 (1)

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Figures (2)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Chromaticity loci of the MacAdam limits of Y for optimal colors in the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system for the CIE standard illuminant D65. The strippled lines indicate the deuteranope’s and tritanope’s confusion loci.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Family of MacAdam limits YM in the bluish white portion of the CIE chromaticity diagram showing the positions of 22 fluorescent white paper samples. The values of the luminous reflectance Y and the luminous fluorescence ΔYM (in parentheses) are shown for each sample.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Values of B10 and Y10 for the plaques of the Ciba–Geigy Plastic White Scale with whiteness values reported by the manufacturer and obtained from Eq. (9). ΔYM is obtained from Eq. (10) for plaques 1–5 and from Eq. (8) for plaques 6–12.

Tables Icon

TABLE II Points on loci of equal values of YM of optimal colors in the CIE 1931 system for illuminant D65. Optimal colors that have zero reflectance at λ1 > λ > λ2 are listed in the upper part of the table. Optimal colors that have zero reflectance at λ1 < λ < λ2 are listed in the lower part of the table.

Equations (10)

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x : y : z = X : Y : Z .
Z = 1 x w y w y w B = a B .
Y M Z = y z = y 1 x y .
Y M = 100 · ( 1 x w y w ) y ( 1 x y ) y w .
y = ( 1 x ) Y M 100 a + Y M .
Δ Y M = Y Y M
Y M = 100 a y 1 x y = 100 B Y .
Δ Y M = Y 108.9 y 1 x y = ( 1 100 B ) Y .
W = a ( Δ Y M + b ) ,
Δ Y M Y 100 .