Abstract

By use of a cw dye laser, the resonance-fluorescence method is used to make absolute density measurements of sodium vapor from 10<sup>2</sup> atoms/cm<sup>3</sup> at -28°C to 10<sup>11</sup> atoms/cm<sup>3</sup> at 144°C. The results are compared with other measurements at higher temperature by a thermodynamic analysis. A new vapor-pressure curve is derived, which is slightly different from previous curves based on the higher-temperature measurements. The application of laser resonance fluorescence to other species is also discussed. In particular, a scheme for detecting sodium-quark atoms, if they exist, with a sensitivity of <i>n</i><sub><i>q</i></sub>/<i>n</i><sub><i>B</i></sub>~10<sup>-15</sup>, is proposed.

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  1. A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).
  2. J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).
  3. T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).
  4. D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).
  5. R. A. Keller, Chemtech, p. 626 (1973).
  6. F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn, and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).
  7. N. Ioli, F. Strumia, and A. Moretti, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).
  8. W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).
  9. A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).
  10. M. Hercher and B. Snavely, in Coherence and Quantum Optics, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf (Plenum, New York, 1973).
  11. W. M. Fairbank, Jr., Stanford University, Ph.D. thesis (Microwave Laboratory Report, Stanford University, 1974).
  12. A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).
  13. M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).
  14. K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383, passim (1935).
  15. G. W. Thompson and E. Garelis, in Sodium: Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, edited by M. Sittig (Reinhold, New York, 1956).
  16. R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermo - dynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).
  17. R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).
  18. K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).
  19. C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).

van der Heide, J. A.

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn, and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

Baghuis, L. C. J.

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn, and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

Becker, K. H.

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

Chamberlain, J. W.

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).

Coolen, F. C. M.

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn, and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

Davis, L. I.

C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).

Desai, P. D.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermo - dynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

DeVries, T.

W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).

Dienes, A.

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).

Donahue, T. M.

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).

Fairbank, Jr., W. M.

W. M. Fairbank, Jr., Stanford University, Ph.D. thesis (Microwave Laboratory Report, Stanford University, 1974).

Garelis, E.

G. W. Thompson and E. Garelis, in Sodium: Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, edited by M. Sittig (Reinhold, New York, 1956).

Gibson, A. J.

A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).

Gleiser, M.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermo - dynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Haaks, D.

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

Hagedoorn, H. L.

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn, and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

Hawkins, D. T.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermo - dynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Hercher, M.

M. Hercher and B. Snavely, in Coherence and Quantum Optics, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf (Plenum, New York, 1973).

Hodgson, R. T.

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).

Hultgren, R.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermo - dynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Hunten, D. M.

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).

Ioli, N.

N. Ioli, F. Strumia, and A. Moretti, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).

Ippen, E. P.

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).

Jennings, D. A.

D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).

Keller, R. A.

D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).

R. A. Keller, Chemtech, p. 626 (1973).

Kelley, K. K.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermo - dynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383, passim (1935).

Lipworth, E.

M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).

Mack, J. E.

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).

Moretti, A.

N. Ioli, F. Strumia, and A. Moretti, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).

Nesmeyanov, A. N.

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).

Resnick, R.

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).

Rodebush, W. H.

W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).

Rozwadowski, M.

M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).

Sandford, M. C. W.

A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).

Shank, C. V.

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).

Snavely, B.

M. Hercher and B. Snavely, in Coherence and Quantum Optics, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf (Plenum, New York, 1973).

Sorokin, P. P.

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).

Strumia, F.

N. Ioli, F. Strumia, and A. Moretti, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).

Stull, V. R.

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).

Tatarczyk, T.

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

Thompson, G. W.

G. W. Thompson and E. Garelis, in Sodium: Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, edited by M. Sittig (Reinhold, New York, 1956).

Wagman, D. D.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermo - dynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).

Wynne, J. J.

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).

Other (19)

A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).

D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).

R. A. Keller, Chemtech, p. 626 (1973).

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn, and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).

N. Ioli, F. Strumia, and A. Moretti, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).

W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).

M. Hercher and B. Snavely, in Coherence and Quantum Optics, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf (Plenum, New York, 1973).

W. M. Fairbank, Jr., Stanford University, Ph.D. thesis (Microwave Laboratory Report, Stanford University, 1974).

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).

M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).

K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383, passim (1935).

G. W. Thompson and E. Garelis, in Sodium: Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, edited by M. Sittig (Reinhold, New York, 1956).

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermo - dynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).

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