Abstract

By use of a cw dye laser, the resonance-fluorescence method is used to make absolute density measurements of sodium vapor from 102 atoms/cm3 at −28 °C to 1011 atoms/cm3 at 144 °C. The results are compared with other measurements at higher temperature by a thermodynamic analysis. A new vapor-pressure curve is derived, which is slightly different from previous curves based on the higher-temperature measurements. The application of laser resonance fluorescence to other species is also discussed. In particular, a scheme for detecting sodium-quark atoms, if they exist, with a sensitivity of nq/nB ~ 10−15, is proposed.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. A. Keller, Chemtech, p. 626 (1973).
  6. F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn, and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Ioli, F. Strumia, and A. Moretti, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Hercher and B. Snavely, in Coherence and Quantum Optics, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf (Plenum, New York, 1973).
  11. W. M. Fairbank, Stanford University, Ph.D. thesis (Microwave Laboratory Report, Stanford University, 1974).
  12. A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).
  13. M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383, passim (1935).
  15. G. W. Thompson and E. Garelis, in Sodium: Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, edited by M. Sittig (Reinhold, New York, 1956).
  16. R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).
  17. R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).
  19. C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
    [Crossref]

1974 (3)

F. C. M. Coolen, L. C. J. Baghuis, H. L. Hagedoorn, and J. A. van der Heide, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 482 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (3)

D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).
[Crossref]

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (2)

N. Ioli, F. Strumia, and A. Moretti, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1251 (1971).
[Crossref]

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383, passim (1935).

1925 (1)

W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).
[Crossref]

Baghuis, L. C. J.

Becker, K. H.

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

Chamberlain, J. W.

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).
[Crossref]

Coolen, F. C. M.

Davis, L. I.

C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
[Crossref]

Desai, P. D.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

DeVries, T.

W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).
[Crossref]

Dienes, A.

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).
[Crossref]

Donahue, T. M.

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).
[Crossref]

Fairbank, W. M.

W. M. Fairbank, Stanford University, Ph.D. thesis (Microwave Laboratory Report, Stanford University, 1974).

Garelis, E.

G. W. Thompson and E. Garelis, in Sodium: Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, edited by M. Sittig (Reinhold, New York, 1956).

Gibson, A. J.

A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).
[Crossref]

Gleiser, M.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Haaks, D.

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

Hagedoorn, H. L.

Hawkins, D. T.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Hercher, M.

M. Hercher and B. Snavely, in Coherence and Quantum Optics, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf (Plenum, New York, 1973).

Hodgson, R. T.

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hultgren, R.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Hunten, D. M.

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).
[Crossref]

Ioli, N.

Ippen, E. P.

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).
[Crossref]

Jennings, D. A.

D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).
[Crossref]

Keller, R. A.

D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. A. Keller, Chemtech, p. 626 (1973).

Kelley, K. K.

K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383, passim (1935).

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Lipworth, E.

M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).
[Crossref]

Mack, J. E.

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).
[Crossref]

Moretti, A.

Nesmeyanov, A. N.

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).

Resnick, R.

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).
[Crossref]

Rodebush, W. H.

W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).
[Crossref]

Rozwadowski, M.

M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).
[Crossref]

Sandford, M. C. W.

A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).
[Crossref]

Shank, C. V.

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).
[Crossref]

Snavely, B.

M. Hercher and B. Snavely, in Coherence and Quantum Optics, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf (Plenum, New York, 1973).

Sorokin, P. P.

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).
[Crossref]

Strumia, F.

Stull, V. R.

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).
[Crossref]

Tatarczyk, T.

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

Thompson, G. W.

G. W. Thompson and E. Garelis, in Sodium: Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, edited by M. Sittig (Reinhold, New York, 1956).

van der Heide, J. A.

Wagman, D. D.

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
[Crossref]

Wynne, J. J.

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Dienes, E. P. Ippen, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 258 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

D. A. Jennings and R. A. Keller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 9249 (1972).
[Crossref]

W. H. Rodebush and T. DeVries, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 47, 2488 (1925).
[Crossref]

J. Atm. Terr. Phys. (1)

J. W. Chamberlain, D. M. Hunten, and J. E. Mack, J. Atm. Terr. Phys. 12, 153 (1958).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Rozwadowski and E. Lipworth, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2347 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Nature (1)

A. J. Gibson and M. C. W. Sandford, Nature 239, 509 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

T. M. Donahue, R. Resnick, and V. R. Stull, Phys. Rev. 104, 873 (1956).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. C. Wang and L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

R. T. Hodgson, P. P. Sorokin, and J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 343 (1974).
[Crossref]

U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. (1)

K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383, passim (1935).

Z. Naturforsch. (1)

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, and T. Tatarczyk, Z. Naturforsch. 27a, 1510 (1972).

Other (6)

G. W. Thompson and E. Garelis, in Sodium: Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, edited by M. Sittig (Reinhold, New York, 1956).

R. Hultgren, P. D. Desai, D. T. Hawkins, M. Gleiser, K. K. Kelley, and D. D. Wagman, Selected Values of the Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973).

M. Hercher and B. Snavely, in Coherence and Quantum Optics, edited by L. Mandel and E. Wolf (Plenum, New York, 1973).

W. M. Fairbank, Stanford University, Ph.D. thesis (Microwave Laboratory Report, Stanford University, 1974).

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressure of the Elements (Academic, New York, 1963).

R. A. Keller, Chemtech, p. 626 (1973).

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Figures (6)

FIG. 1
FIG. 1

Resonance-fluorescence apparatus.

FIG. 2
FIG. 2

Continuous-wave dye laser.

FIG. 3
FIG. 3

Hyperfine structure and transition strengths of the sodium D lines.

FIG. 4
FIG. 4

Sodium-vapor-density measurements made in this experiment. The solid line is a thermodynamically derived curve, using Δ H 0 ° = 25 600 cal / mole.

FIG. 5
FIG. 5

Values of Δ H 0 ° calculated from sodium-vapor-pressure measurements by various methods: ▲ boiling point; ■ effusion, flow, magnetic rotation, and balanced-disk manometer; ♦ partial pressure; × absorption; ● this experiment.

FIG. 6
FIG. 6

Values of Δ H 0 ° from this experiment. There is no temperature dependence in the values of this constant. Data taken at 5896 Å are indicated by ▲; data taken at 5890 Å are indicated by ●

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Ground-state transitions of the 87 elements whose atomic energy levels are known. Only the most promising transition for use in the resonance fluorescence method is shown for each atom.

Equations (14)

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σ ( 5890 ) = ( 10 12 cm 2 ) ( 8.037 1.31 × 10 2 T + 2.30 × 10 5 T 2 )
σ ( 5896 ) = ( 10 12 cm 2 ) ( 3.968 6.40 × 10 2 T + 1.11 × 10 5 T 2 ) ,
I F = I i I T = I i [ 1 exp ( σ N L obs ) ] .
I i = I 0 exp ( σ N L arm ) .
I F / I 0 = exp ( σ N L arm ) [ 1 exp ( σ N L obs ) ] .
N max = 1 σ L obs ln ( L arm + L obs L arm ) .
N max ~ 1 σ L arm ( 1 L obs 2 L arm ) .
L arm = 1 2 ( L L obs ) = 19.6 ± 0.4 cm .
N max ~ 2 σ L [ 1 + 1 3 ( L obs L ) 2 ] .
( I F I 0 ) max = 2 e L obs L [ 1 + 1 6 ( L obs L ) 2 ] .
R ln p = Δ Φ T * Δ H 0 ° / T .
Δ H 0 ° = 25 600 ± 150 cal / mole .
ln p ( atm ) = 2.49845 ln T 13255.7 / T + 26.1342 + ( 7.05625 × 10 3 ) T ( 4.85436 × 10 6 ) T 2 ,
ln p ( atm ) = 2.00652 ln T 13099.1 / T + 24.3539 + ( 1.15167 × 10 3 ) T ( 2.12972 × 10 7 ) T 2 + ( 6.945 × 10 4 / T ) e 13600 / T .