Abstract

A theoretical foundation is presented for the experimental determination of the scattering-phase matrix for nonspherical ice crystals. The scattering-phase matrix can be determined solely from four radiance measurements. Conditions for the phase matrix of a volume of ice crystals that are typical of those in cirrus clouds are presented.

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  1. D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).
  2. R. J. Curran, B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, and J. C. Pearl, Science 182, 381 (1973).
  3. D. L. Coffeen, and J. E. Hansen, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1972), p. 515.
  4. J. E. Hansen, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400 (1971).
  5. K. N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 522 (1974).
  6. K. N. Liou and H. Lahore, J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 257 (1974).
  7. Atmospheric Radiation Working Group, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 53, 950 (1972).
  8. P. Huffman and W. R. Thursby, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1969).
  9. B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 191 (1960).
  10. A. C. Holland and G. Gagne, Appl. Opt. 9, 1113 (1970).
  11. R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 110 (1947).
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 544.
  13. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  14. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1950), p. 40.
  15. H. K. Weickmann, Ber. Deut. Wetterd. 6, 1 (1949).
  16. A. J. Heymsfield and R. G. Knollenberg, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1358 (1972).
  17. D. O. Jayaweera and B. J. Mason, J. Fluid Mech. 22, 709 (1965).
  18. A. Ono, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 138 (1969).
  19. F. Perrin, J. Chem. Phys. 10, 415 (1942).

Huffman, P.

P. Huffman and W. R. Thursby, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1969).

Thursby, W. R.

P. Huffman and W. R. Thursby, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1969).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 544.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1950), p. 40.

Coffeen, D. L.

D. L. Coffeen, and J. E. Hansen, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1972), p. 515.

Conrath, B. J.

R. J. Curran, B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, and J. C. Pearl, Science 182, 381 (1973).

Curran, R. J.

R. J. Curran, B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, and J. C. Pearl, Science 182, 381 (1973).

Deirmendjian, D.

D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).

Elliott, W. G.

B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 191 (1960).

Gagne, G.

A. C. Holland and G. Gagne, Appl. Opt. 9, 1113 (1970).

Hanel, R. A.

R. J. Curran, B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, and J. C. Pearl, Science 182, 381 (1973).

Hansen, J. E.

D. L. Coffeen, and J. E. Hansen, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1972), p. 515.

J. E. Hansen, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400 (1971).

Heymsfield, A. J.

A. J. Heymsfield and R. G. Knollenberg, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1358 (1972).

Holland, A. C.

A. C. Holland and G. Gagne, Appl. Opt. 9, 1113 (1970).

Jayaweera, D. O.

D. O. Jayaweera and B. J. Mason, J. Fluid Mech. 22, 709 (1965).

Jones, R. C.

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 110 (1947).

Knollenberg, R. G.

A. J. Heymsfield and R. G. Knollenberg, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1358 (1972).

Kunde, V. G.

R. J. Curran, B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, and J. C. Pearl, Science 182, 381 (1973).

Lahore, H.

K. N. Liou and H. Lahore, J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 257 (1974).

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 522 (1974).

K. N. Liou and H. Lahore, J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 257 (1974).

Mason, B. J.

D. O. Jayaweera and B. J. Mason, J. Fluid Mech. 22, 709 (1965).

Ono, A.

A. Ono, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 138 (1969).

Pearl, J. C.

R. J. Curran, B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, and J. C. Pearl, Science 182, 381 (1973).

Perrin, F.

F. Perrin, J. Chem. Phys. 10, 415 (1942).

Pritchard, B. S.

B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 191 (1960).

Weickmann, H. K.

H. K. Weickmann, Ber. Deut. Wetterd. 6, 1 (1949).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 544.

Other

D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).

R. J. Curran, B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, and J. C. Pearl, Science 182, 381 (1973).

D. L. Coffeen, and J. E. Hansen, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1972), p. 515.

J. E. Hansen, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400 (1971).

K. N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 522 (1974).

K. N. Liou and H. Lahore, J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 257 (1974).

Atmospheric Radiation Working Group, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 53, 950 (1972).

P. Huffman and W. R. Thursby, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1073 (1969).

B. S. Pritchard and W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 191 (1960).

A. C. Holland and G. Gagne, Appl. Opt. 9, 1113 (1970).

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 110 (1947).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 544.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1950), p. 40.

H. K. Weickmann, Ber. Deut. Wetterd. 6, 1 (1949).

A. J. Heymsfield and R. G. Knollenberg, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1358 (1972).

D. O. Jayaweera and B. J. Mason, J. Fluid Mech. 22, 709 (1965).

A. Ono, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 138 (1969).

F. Perrin, J. Chem. Phys. 10, 415 (1942).

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