Abstract

If a compensator rotating at exactly one-third the rate of the analyzer is added to a rotating-analyzer ellipsometer (RAE), all four Stokes parameters of a general polarization state can be measured by Fourier analyzing the transmitted flux. This rotating-analyzer/compensator ellipsometer (RACE) retains the high sensitivity of photometric systems while eliminating the measurement ambiguities characteristic of other photometric ellipsometers. It is self-calibrating and, like null systems, its precision does not depend upon the state measured.

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  1. H. Takasaki, Appl. Opt. 5, 759 (1966); I. Wilmanns, Surf. Sci. 16, 147 (1969); H. G. Mathieu, D. E. McClure, and R. H. Muller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 798 (1974).
  2. B. D. Cahan and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969); R. Greef, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 532 (1970); B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, Surf. Sci. 37, 559 (1973); R. W. Stobie, B. Rao, and M. J. Dignam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 25 (1975).
  3. D. E. Aspnes, Opt. Commun. 8, 222 (1973).
  4. P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973); Y. J. van der Meulen and N. C. Hien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 804 (1974).
  5. D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, Appl. Opt. 14, 220 (1975).
  6. S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C O'Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly; Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).
  7. D. E. Aspnes, Appl. Opt. 14, 1131 (1975).
  8. D. E. Aspnes, in Optical Properties of Solids: New Developments, edited by B. O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975).
  9. D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 639 (1974).
  10. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 1st ed, (Pergamon, New York, 1964), pp. 544ff.
  11. D. Clark and J. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), p. 124.
  12. D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1077 (1971).
  13. R. M. A. Azzam and N. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 600, 773 (1971).
  14. R. C. O'Handley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 523 (1973); R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1459 (1974).
  15. D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 812 (1974).
  16. Model 33-86-25 high-intensity monochromator, with model 33-86-02 grating with 1350 lines/mm blazed at 500 nm. The source used in the measurement was a model 33-86-39-01 45W quartz-iodine lamp, the light from which was collimated by a single quartz focusing lens. All components were manufactured by Bausch and Lomb, Rochester, N. Y. 14625.
  17. Model 9659 QB photomultiplier, manufactured by EMI Electronics, Ltd., Hayes, Middlesex, England.
  18. Lord Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 14, 60 (1907).
  19. R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396 (1902); 23, 310 (1912).
  20. G. W. Stroke, in Handbuch der Physik, 29, edited by S. Flügge (Springer, Berlin, 1967), p. 426.

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, Opt. Commun. 8, 222 (1973).

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, Appl. Opt. 14, 220 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, Appl. Opt. 14, 1131 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, in Optical Properties of Solids: New Developments, edited by B. O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975).

D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 639 (1974).

D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1077 (1971).

D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 812 (1974).

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 600, 773 (1971).

Bashara, N.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 600, 773 (1971).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 1st ed, (Pergamon, New York, 1964), pp. 544ff.

Cahan, B. D.

B. D. Cahan and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969); R. Greef, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 532 (1970); B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, Surf. Sci. 37, 559 (1973); R. W. Stobie, B. Rao, and M. J. Dignam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 25 (1975).

Clark, D.

D. Clark and J. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), p. 124.

Dill, F. H.

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973); Y. J. van der Meulen and N. C. Hien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 804 (1974).

Grainger, J.

D. Clark and J. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), p. 124.

Hauge, P. S.

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973); Y. J. van der Meulen and N. C. Hien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 804 (1974).

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C O'Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly; Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).

O’Handley, R. C.

R. C. O'Handley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 523 (1973); R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1459 (1974).

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 14, 60 (1907).

Schnatterly, S. E.

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C O'Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly; Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).

Spanier, R. F.

B. D. Cahan and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969); R. Greef, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 532 (1970); B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, Surf. Sci. 37, 559 (1973); R. W. Stobie, B. Rao, and M. J. Dignam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 25 (1975).

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke, in Handbuch der Physik, 29, edited by S. Flügge (Springer, Berlin, 1967), p. 426.

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, Appl. Opt. 14, 220 (1975).

Takasaki, H.

H. Takasaki, Appl. Opt. 5, 759 (1966); I. Wilmanns, Surf. Sci. 16, 147 (1969); H. G. Mathieu, D. E. McClure, and R. H. Muller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 798 (1974).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 1st ed, (Pergamon, New York, 1964), pp. 544ff.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396 (1902); 23, 310 (1912).

Other (20)

H. Takasaki, Appl. Opt. 5, 759 (1966); I. Wilmanns, Surf. Sci. 16, 147 (1969); H. G. Mathieu, D. E. McClure, and R. H. Muller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 798 (1974).

B. D. Cahan and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969); R. Greef, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 532 (1970); B. D. Cahan, J. Horkans, and E. Yeager, Surf. Sci. 37, 559 (1973); R. W. Stobie, B. Rao, and M. J. Dignam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 25 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, Opt. Commun. 8, 222 (1973).

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, IBM J. Res. Dev. 17, 472 (1973); Y. J. van der Meulen and N. C. Hien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 804 (1974).

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, Appl. Opt. 14, 220 (1975).

S. N. Jasperson and S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969); S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, and R. C O'Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973); J. I. Treu, A. B. Callendar, and S. E. Schnatterly; Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 793 (1973).

D. E. Aspnes, Appl. Opt. 14, 1131 (1975).

D. E. Aspnes, in Optical Properties of Solids: New Developments, edited by B. O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975).

D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 639 (1974).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 1st ed, (Pergamon, New York, 1964), pp. 544ff.

D. Clark and J. Grainger, Polarized Light and Optical Measurement (Pergamon, New York, 1971), p. 124.

D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1077 (1971).

R. M. A. Azzam and N. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 600, 773 (1971).

R. C. O'Handley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 523 (1973); R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1459 (1974).

D. E. Aspnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 812 (1974).

Model 33-86-25 high-intensity monochromator, with model 33-86-02 grating with 1350 lines/mm blazed at 500 nm. The source used in the measurement was a model 33-86-39-01 45W quartz-iodine lamp, the light from which was collimated by a single quartz focusing lens. All components were manufactured by Bausch and Lomb, Rochester, N. Y. 14625.

Model 9659 QB photomultiplier, manufactured by EMI Electronics, Ltd., Hayes, Middlesex, England.

Lord Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 14, 60 (1907).

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396 (1902); 23, 310 (1912).

G. W. Stroke, in Handbuch der Physik, 29, edited by S. Flügge (Springer, Berlin, 1967), p. 426.

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