Abstract

The basis for instrument myopia, the tendency to accommodate inappropriately while viewing through an optical instrument, was investigated in three experiments. The first demonstrated that the distance of a peripheral surround, analogous to a field stop, influences accommodation but that the magnitude of the effect cannot account for instrument myopia. The second experiment re-examined the hypothesis that perceived distance can affect accommodation. The data indicate that perceived distance is unlikely to influence accommodation and does not provide an explanation of instrument myopia. The last experiment tested the hypothesis that instrument myopia is a manifestation of the return of accommodation to an intermediate state of rest or equilibrium in the absence of an adequate stimulus for accommodation. Implications of the intermediate-resting-state hypothesis are discussed.

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  1. R. A. Moses, Adler's Physiology of the Eye (Mosby, St. Louis, 1970).
  2. F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. 123, 357 (1954).
  3. O. W. Richards, Am. J. Optom. 49, 539 (1972).
  4. H. Schober, H. Dehler, and R. Kassel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 103 (1970).
  5. T. Shimojima, Jpn. J. Clin. Ophthalmol. 21, 985 (1967).
  6. J. R. Baker, J. Roy. Microscopical Soc. 85, 231 (1966).
  7. W. H. Ittelson and A. Ames, J. Psychol. 30, 43 (1950).
  8. M. Nakabayashi and T. Katano, Folia Ophthalmol. Japonica 16, 884 (1965).
  9. H. W. Hofstetter, Am. J. Optom. 19, 66 (1942).
  10. G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714 (1957).
  11. R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, Percept. Psychophys. 10, 127 (1971).sss
  12. H. Schober, Optik 6, 282 (1954).
  13. R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237 (1972). H. W. Leibowitz and R. T. Hennessy, Am. Psychologist 30, 349 (1975).
  14. H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 43, 415 (1966).
  15. W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Opt. 45, 143 (1968).
  16. E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).
  17. When a positive lens is placed before the eye so that the posterior focal point of the lens coincides with the entrance pupil of the eye, the image of an object on the anterior optical axis of the lens retains the same angular size, regardless of the distance of the object. Also, relatively small displacements of the object cause its image to move over a wide range of distances. This principle was first pointed out by Badal. For further elaboration, see K. N. Ogle, Optics, 2nd ed. (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1968), p. 226.
  18. In all of the reported measurements of refractive state, axial chromatic aberration associated with the wavelength of the laser light was corrected to 560 nm, using the data of Bedford and Wyszecki [R. E. Bedford and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 564 (1967)].
  19. E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).
  20. F. Toates, Physiol. Rev. 52, 828 (1972).
  21. R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1700 (1970).
  22. W. H. Ittelson, Visual Space Perception (Springer, New York, 1960), p. 69.
  23. J. M. Otero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 942 (1951).
  24. M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 34, 347 (1957).
  25. H. W. Leibowitz, R. T. Hennessy, and D. A. Owens, Psychologia 18, Sept. (1975).
  26. S. M. Luria and J. S. Kinney, Percept. Psychophys. 11, 437 (1972).
  27. W. N. Charman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 102 (1974).
  28. K. Ogle and J. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 273 (1959).
  29. F. Campbell, Opt. Acta 4, 157 (1957).
  30. H. Ripps, N. Chin, I. Siegel and G. Breinin, Inves. Ophthal. 1, 127 (1962).
  31. Y. LeGrand, Form and Space Vision (Indiana U. P., Bloomington, Ind., 1967).
  32. W. J. Giese, J. Appl. Psychol. 30, 91 (1946).
  33. G. Westheimer and S. Blair, Vision Res. 13, 1035 (1973).

Ames, A.

W. H. Ittelson and A. Ames, J. Psychol. 30, 43 (1950).

Baker, J. R.

J. R. Baker, J. Roy. Microscopical Soc. 85, 231 (1966).

Baldwin, W. R.

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Opt. 45, 143 (1968).

Blair, S.

G. Westheimer and S. Blair, Vision Res. 13, 1035 (1973).

Breinin, G.

H. Ripps, N. Chin, I. Siegel and G. Breinin, Inves. Ophthal. 1, 127 (1962).

Campbell, F.

F. Campbell, Opt. Acta 4, 157 (1957).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. 123, 357 (1954).

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 102 (1974).

Chin, N.

H. Ripps, N. Chin, I. Siegel and G. Breinin, Inves. Ophthal. 1, 127 (1962).

Dehler, H.

H. Schober, H. Dehler, and R. Kassel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 103 (1970).

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).

Giese, W. J.

W. J. Giese, J. Appl. Psychol. 30, 91 (1946).

Hennessy, R. T.

H. W. Leibowitz, R. T. Hennessy, and D. A. Owens, Psychologia 18, Sept. (1975).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, Percept. Psychophys. 10, 127 (1971).sss

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1700 (1970).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237 (1972). H. W. Leibowitz and R. T. Hennessy, Am. Psychologist 30, 349 (1975).

Hofstetter, H. W.

H. W. Hofstetter, Am. J. Optom. 19, 66 (1942).

Ingelstam, E.

E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).

Ittelson, W. H.

W. H. Ittelson and A. Ames, J. Psychol. 30, 43 (1950).

W. H. Ittelson, Visual Space Perception (Springer, New York, 1960), p. 69.

Kassel, R.

H. Schober, H. Dehler, and R. Kassel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 103 (1970).

Katano, T.

M. Nakabayashi and T. Katano, Folia Ophthalmol. Japonica 16, 884 (1965).

Kinney, J. S.

S. M. Luria and J. S. Kinney, Percept. Psychophys. 11, 437 (1972).

Knoll, H. A.

H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 43, 415 (1966).

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Form and Space Vision (Indiana U. P., Bloomington, Ind., 1967).

Leibowitz, H. W.

H. W. Leibowitz, R. T. Hennessy, and D. A. Owens, Psychologia 18, Sept. (1975).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, Percept. Psychophys. 10, 127 (1971).sss

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1700 (1970).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237 (1972). H. W. Leibowitz and R. T. Hennessy, Am. Psychologist 30, 349 (1975).

Luria, S. M.

S. M. Luria and J. S. Kinney, Percept. Psychophys. 11, 437 (1972).

Morgan, M. W.

M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 34, 347 (1957).

Moses, R. A.

R. A. Moses, Adler's Physiology of the Eye (Mosby, St. Louis, 1970).

Nakabayashi, M.

M. Nakabayashi and T. Katano, Folia Ophthalmol. Japonica 16, 884 (1965).

Ogle, K.

K. Ogle and J. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 273 (1959).

Ogle, K. N.

When a positive lens is placed before the eye so that the posterior focal point of the lens coincides with the entrance pupil of the eye, the image of an object on the anterior optical axis of the lens retains the same angular size, regardless of the distance of the object. Also, relatively small displacements of the object cause its image to move over a wide range of distances. This principle was first pointed out by Badal. For further elaboration, see K. N. Ogle, Optics, 2nd ed. (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1968), p. 226.

Otero, J. M.

J. M. Otero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 942 (1951).

Owens, D. A.

H. W. Leibowitz, R. T. Hennessy, and D. A. Owens, Psychologia 18, Sept. (1975).

Ragnarsson, S. I.

E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).

Richards, O. W.

O. W. Richards, Am. J. Optom. 49, 539 (1972).

Ripps, H.

H. Ripps, N. Chin, I. Siegel and G. Breinin, Inves. Ophthal. 1, 127 (1962).

Schober, H.

H. Schober, Optik 6, 282 (1954).

H. Schober, H. Dehler, and R. Kassel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 103 (1970).

Schwartz, J.

K. Ogle and J. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 273 (1959).

Shimojima, T.

T. Shimojima, Jpn. J. Clin. Ophthalmol. 21, 985 (1967).

Siegel, I.

H. Ripps, N. Chin, I. Siegel and G. Breinin, Inves. Ophthal. 1, 127 (1962).

Stover, W. B.

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Opt. 45, 143 (1968).

Toates, F.

F. Toates, Physiol. Rev. 52, 828 (1972).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer and S. Blair, Vision Res. 13, 1035 (1973).

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714 (1957).

Other (33)

R. A. Moses, Adler's Physiology of the Eye (Mosby, St. Louis, 1970).

F. W. Campbell, J. Physiol. 123, 357 (1954).

O. W. Richards, Am. J. Optom. 49, 539 (1972).

H. Schober, H. Dehler, and R. Kassel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 103 (1970).

T. Shimojima, Jpn. J. Clin. Ophthalmol. 21, 985 (1967).

J. R. Baker, J. Roy. Microscopical Soc. 85, 231 (1966).

W. H. Ittelson and A. Ames, J. Psychol. 30, 43 (1950).

M. Nakabayashi and T. Katano, Folia Ophthalmol. Japonica 16, 884 (1965).

H. W. Hofstetter, Am. J. Optom. 19, 66 (1942).

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 714 (1957).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, Percept. Psychophys. 10, 127 (1971).sss

H. Schober, Optik 6, 282 (1954).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, Behav. Res. Meth. Instrum. 4, 237 (1972). H. W. Leibowitz and R. T. Hennessy, Am. Psychologist 30, 349 (1975).

H. A. Knoll, Am. J. Optom. 43, 415 (1966).

W. R. Baldwin and W. B. Stover, Am. J. Opt. 45, 143 (1968).

E. Ingelstam and S. I. Ragnarsson, Vision Res. 12, 411 (1972).

When a positive lens is placed before the eye so that the posterior focal point of the lens coincides with the entrance pupil of the eye, the image of an object on the anterior optical axis of the lens retains the same angular size, regardless of the distance of the object. Also, relatively small displacements of the object cause its image to move over a wide range of distances. This principle was first pointed out by Badal. For further elaboration, see K. N. Ogle, Optics, 2nd ed. (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1968), p. 226.

In all of the reported measurements of refractive state, axial chromatic aberration associated with the wavelength of the laser light was corrected to 560 nm, using the data of Bedford and Wyszecki [R. E. Bedford and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 564 (1967)].

E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).

F. Toates, Physiol. Rev. 52, 828 (1972).

R. T. Hennessy and H. W. Leibowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1700 (1970).

W. H. Ittelson, Visual Space Perception (Springer, New York, 1960), p. 69.

J. M. Otero, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 942 (1951).

M. W. Morgan, Am. J. Optom. 34, 347 (1957).

H. W. Leibowitz, R. T. Hennessy, and D. A. Owens, Psychologia 18, Sept. (1975).

S. M. Luria and J. S. Kinney, Percept. Psychophys. 11, 437 (1972).

W. N. Charman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 102 (1974).

K. Ogle and J. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 273 (1959).

F. Campbell, Opt. Acta 4, 157 (1957).

H. Ripps, N. Chin, I. Siegel and G. Breinin, Inves. Ophthal. 1, 127 (1962).

Y. LeGrand, Form and Space Vision (Indiana U. P., Bloomington, Ind., 1967).

W. J. Giese, J. Appl. Psychol. 30, 91 (1946).

G. Westheimer and S. Blair, Vision Res. 13, 1035 (1973).

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