Abstract

Electroretinograms and visually evoked cortical potentials, dependent on the occurence of spontaneous saccadic eye movements, were recorded from human observers. A computer system was used to isolate average-response waveforms that result from saccadic displacements of the retinal image. The responses were recorded as the observer fixed his eye on the center of a steady pattern of vertical stripes presented in maxwellian view. The responses depended on the spatial frequency of the pattern being viewed; in all cases, they were proportional to the extent of saccadic movement. The results are interpreted in terms of response additivity and the numbers of cones stimulated by the image displacement.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Alpern, in The Eye, Vol. 3, edited by H. Davson, (Academic, New York, 1962), Ch. 5.
  2. F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exper. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
  3. Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by M. Alpern, D. Jameson, and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), Ch. 12.
  4. L. Matin, in Ref. 3, Ch. 13.
  5. F. W. Weymouth, E. E. Andersen, and H. L. Averill, Am. J. Physiol:63, 410 (1923).
  6. F. Ratliff, J. Exper. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).
  7. U. T. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 769 (1960).
  8. R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).
  9. L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).
  10. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).
  11. T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 987 (1956).
  12. J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 569 (1960).
  13. R. J. Cunitz and R. M. Steinman, Vision Res. 9, 683 (1969).
  14. K. Gaarder, J. Krauskopf, V. Graf, W. Kropfl, and J. C. Armington, Science 146, 1481 (1964).
  15. J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1534 (1967).
  16. E. D. Adrian, Mechanism of Nervous Action (Oxford U. P., Oxford, 1932).
  17. H. K. Hartline, J. Cell, Comp. Physiol. 5, 229 (1934).
  18. J. C. Armington, Behav. Res. Meth. Instru. 4(2), 61 (1972).
  19. L. E. Flamm, PhD thesis (Northeastern University, Boston, 1971).
  20. A. Skavenski and G. Timberlake, personal communication.
  21. K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).
  22. J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169 (1959).
  23. J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).
  24. H. J. M. Gerrits and A. J. H. Vendrik, Vision Res. 10, 1443 (1970).
  25. A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588 (1968).
  26. L. H. van der Tweel, Annal. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 89, 829 (1961).
  27. E. P. Johnson, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).
  28. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).
  29. R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).
  30. G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 134, 353 (1956).
  31. J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169 (1959).
  32. E. P. Johnson and N. R. Bartlett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 167 (1956).
  33. N. W. Perry and D. G. Childers, The Human Visual Evoked Response: Method and Theory (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1969), see pp. 46–48.
  34. E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. Suppl. 1, 75 (1966).
  35. J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514 (1971).
  36. M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Vision Res. 8, 701 (1968).
  37. H. Spekreijse, Analysis of EEG Responses in Man Evoked by Sine Wave Modulated Light (Junk, The Hague, 1966).
  38. F. R. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965).
  39. J. C. Armington, R. Marsetta, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 10, 227 (1970).
  40. This correction is taken from a study of alternating stimuli conducted by Armington, Corwin and Marsetta (Ref. 35). Figure 6 from Ref. 35 plots the relative amplitudes of the electroretinogram vs spatial frequency—other conditions being held constant. The amplitudes of the electroretinograms for the three stripe sizes plotted here were multiplied by factors inversely proportional to the attenuations found at those frequencies in Ref. 35.
  41. T. Oesterberg, Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

Adrian, E. D.

E. D. Adrian, Mechanism of Nervous Action (Oxford U. P., Oxford, 1932).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, in The Eye, Vol. 3, edited by H. Davson, (Academic, New York, 1962), Ch. 5.

Andersen, E. E.

F. W. Weymouth, E. E. Andersen, and H. L. Averill, Am. J. Physiol:63, 410 (1923).

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1534 (1967).

J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169 (1959).

J. C. Armington, R. Marsetta, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 10, 227 (1970).

K. Gaarder, J. Krauskopf, V. Graf, W. Kropfl, and J. C. Armington, Science 146, 1481 (1964).

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514 (1971).

J. C. Armington, Behav. Res. Meth. Instru. 4(2), 61 (1972).

J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169 (1959).

Averill, H. L.

F. W. Weymouth, E. E. Andersen, and H. L. Averill, Am. J. Physiol:63, 410 (1923).

Bartlett, N. R.

E. P. Johnson and N. R. Bartlett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 167 (1956).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 134, 353 (1956).

Childers, D. G.

N. W. Perry and D. G. Childers, The Human Visual Evoked Response: Method and Theory (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1969), see pp. 46–48.

Cornsweet, J.

L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).

Cornsweet, T. N.

L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).

T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 987 (1956).

Corwin, T. R.

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514 (1971).

Cunitz, R. J.

R. J. Cunitz and R. M. Steinman, Vision Res. 9, 683 (1969).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).

Flamm, L. E.

L. E. Flamm, PhD thesis (Northeastern University, Boston, 1971).

Gaarder, K.

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1534 (1967).

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).

K. Gaarder, J. Krauskopf, V. Graf, W. Kropfl, and J. C. Armington, Science 146, 1481 (1964).

Gerrits, H. J. M.

H. J. M. Gerrits and A. J. H. Vendrik, Vision Res. 10, 1443 (1970).

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).

Graf, V.

K. Gaarder, J. Krauskopf, V. Graf, W. Kropfl, and J. C. Armington, Science 146, 1481 (1964).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).

Haddad, G. M.

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).

Harter, M. R.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Vision Res. 8, 701 (1968).

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, J. Cell, Comp. Physiol. 5, 229 (1934).

Johnson, E. P.

E. P. Johnson and N. R. Bartlett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 167 (1956).

E. P. Johnson, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. Suppl. 1, 75 (1966).

Keesey, U. T.

U. T. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 769 (1960).

Krauskopf, J.

K. Gaarder, J. Krauskopf, V. Graf, W. Kropfl, and J. C. Armington, Science 146, 1481 (1964).

Kropfl, W.

K. Gaarder, J. Krauskopf, V. Graf, W. Kropfl, and J. C. Armington, Science 146, 1481 (1964).

Marsetta, R.

J. C. Armington, R. Marsetta, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 10, 227 (1970).

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514 (1971).

Matin, L.

L. Matin, in Ref. 3, Ch. 13.

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 569 (1960).

Oesterberg, T.

T. Oesterberg, Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

Perry, N. W.

N. W. Perry and D. G. Childers, The Human Visual Evoked Response: Method and Theory (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1969), see pp. 46–48.

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exper. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).

F. Ratliff, J. Exper. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).

Ratliff, F. R.

F. R. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exper. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. Suppl. 1, 75 (1966).

Schick, A. M. L.

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. Suppl. 1, 75 (1966).

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1534 (1967).

J. C. Armington, R. Marsetta, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 10, 227 (1970).

Schweitzer, N. M. J.

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588 (1968).

Skavenski, A.

A. Skavenski and G. Timberlake, personal communication.

Skavenski, A. A.

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).

Spekreijse, H.

H. Spekreijse, Analysis of EEG Responses in Man Evoked by Sine Wave Modulated Light (Junk, The Hague, 1966).

Steinman, R. M.

R. J. Cunitz and R. M. Steinman, Vision Res. 9, 683 (1969).

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).

Timberlake, G.

A. Skavenski and G. Timberlake, personal communication.

Troelstra, A.

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588 (1968).

van der Tweel, L. H.

L. H. van der Tweel, Annal. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 89, 829 (1961).

Vendrik, A. J. H.

H. J. M. Gerrits and A. J. H. Vendrik, Vision Res. 10, 1443 (1970).

Weymouth, F. W.

F. W. Weymouth, E. E. Andersen, and H. L. Averill, Am. J. Physiol:63, 410 (1923).

White, C. T.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Vision Res. 8, 701 (1968).

Wyman, D.

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).

Other (41)

M. Alpern, in The Eye, Vol. 3, edited by H. Davson, (Academic, New York, 1962), Ch. 5.

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exper. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by M. Alpern, D. Jameson, and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), Ch. 12.

L. Matin, in Ref. 3, Ch. 13.

F. W. Weymouth, E. E. Andersen, and H. L. Averill, Am. J. Physiol:63, 410 (1923).

F. Ratliff, J. Exper. Psychol. 43, 163 (1952).

U. T. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 769 (1960).

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).

L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).

T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 987 (1956).

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 569 (1960).

R. J. Cunitz and R. M. Steinman, Vision Res. 9, 683 (1969).

K. Gaarder, J. Krauskopf, V. Graf, W. Kropfl, and J. C. Armington, Science 146, 1481 (1964).

J. C. Armington, K. Gaarder, and A. M. L. Schick J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1534 (1967).

E. D. Adrian, Mechanism of Nervous Action (Oxford U. P., Oxford, 1932).

H. K. Hartline, J. Cell, Comp. Physiol. 5, 229 (1934).

J. C. Armington, Behav. Res. Meth. Instru. 4(2), 61 (1972).

L. E. Flamm, PhD thesis (Northeastern University, Boston, 1971).

A. Skavenski and G. Timberlake, personal communication.

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).

J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169 (1959).

J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).

H. J. M. Gerrits and A. J. H. Vendrik, Vision Res. 10, 1443 (1970).

A. Troelstra and N. M. J. Schweitzer, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 588 (1968).

L. H. van der Tweel, Annal. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 89, 829 (1961).

E. P. Johnson, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Hafner, New York, 1963).

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 134, 353 (1956).

J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1169 (1959).

E. P. Johnson and N. R. Bartlett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 167 (1956).

N. W. Perry and D. G. Childers, The Human Visual Evoked Response: Method and Theory (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1969), see pp. 46–48.

E. P. Johnson, L. A. Riggs, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. Suppl. 1, 75 (1966).

J. C. Armington, T. R. Corwin, and R. Marsetta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1514 (1971).

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Vision Res. 8, 701 (1968).

H. Spekreijse, Analysis of EEG Responses in Man Evoked by Sine Wave Modulated Light (Junk, The Hague, 1966).

F. R. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1965).

J. C. Armington, R. Marsetta, and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 10, 227 (1970).

This correction is taken from a study of alternating stimuli conducted by Armington, Corwin and Marsetta (Ref. 35). Figure 6 from Ref. 35 plots the relative amplitudes of the electroretinogram vs spatial frequency—other conditions being held constant. The amplitudes of the electroretinograms for the three stripe sizes plotted here were multiplied by factors inversely proportional to the attenuations found at those frequencies in Ref. 35.

T. Oesterberg, Acta Ophthal. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.