Abstract

A sinusoidal grating appears of higher spatial frequency when briefly flashed than when presented for longer durations. This effect is restricted to gratings of low spatial frequency (1 cycle/deg). Time-dependent changes in the response of spatial frequency channels are a likely cause.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. 197, 551 (1968);N. Graham and J. Nachmias, Vision Res. 11, 251 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, Nature 240, 479 (1972); C. Blakemore, J. Nachmias, and P. Sutton, J. Physiol. 210, 727 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A related model is given by D. C. Hood, Vision Res. 13, 759 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. P. Thomas, Psychol. Rev. 77, 121 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. 141, 337 (1958).
  6. D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. W. Campbell, J. Nachmias, and J. Jukes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 555 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Erlebacher and R. Sekuler, Meeting of Am. Psychol. Assoc. (1972).
  9. V. Virsu, Vision Res. 14, 433 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 421 (1967); H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. J. Tolhurst, J. Physiol. 231, 385 (1973);J. J. Kulikowski and D. J. Tolhurst, J. Physiol. 232, 149 (1973).

1974 (1)

V. Virsu, Vision Res. 14, 433 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

A related model is given by D. C. Hood, Vision Res. 13, 759 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Tolhurst, J. Physiol. 231, 385 (1973);J. J. Kulikowski and D. J. Tolhurst, J. Physiol. 232, 149 (1973).

1972 (2)

A. Erlebacher and R. Sekuler, Meeting of Am. Psychol. Assoc. (1972).

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, Nature 240, 479 (1972); C. Blakemore, J. Nachmias, and P. Sutton, J. Physiol. 210, 727 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (2)

1968 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. 197, 551 (1968);N. Graham and J. Nachmias, Vision Res. 11, 251 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

1965 (1)

1958 (1)

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. 141, 337 (1958).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. 141, 337 (1958).

Campbell, F. W.

Erlebacher, A.

A. Erlebacher and R. Sekuler, Meeting of Am. Psychol. Assoc. (1972).

Fiorentini, A.

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, Nature 240, 479 (1972); C. Blakemore, J. Nachmias, and P. Sutton, J. Physiol. 210, 727 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

Hood, D. C.

A related model is given by D. C. Hood, Vision Res. 13, 759 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jukes, J.

Maffei, L.

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, Nature 240, 479 (1972); C. Blakemore, J. Nachmias, and P. Sutton, J. Physiol. 210, 727 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nachmias, J.

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. 197, 551 (1968);N. Graham and J. Nachmias, Vision Res. 11, 251 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekuler, R.

A. Erlebacher and R. Sekuler, Meeting of Am. Psychol. Assoc. (1972).

Thomas, J. P.

J. P. Thomas, Psychol. Rev. 77, 121 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tolhurst, D. J.

D. J. Tolhurst, J. Physiol. 231, 385 (1973);J. J. Kulikowski and D. J. Tolhurst, J. Physiol. 232, 149 (1973).

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu, Vision Res. 14, 433 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Physiol. (3)

D. J. Tolhurst, J. Physiol. 231, 385 (1973);J. J. Kulikowski and D. J. Tolhurst, J. Physiol. 232, 149 (1973).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Physiol. 197, 551 (1968);N. Graham and J. Nachmias, Vision Res. 11, 251 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Barlow, J. Physiol. 141, 337 (1958).

Meeting of Am. Psychol. Assoc. (1)

A. Erlebacher and R. Sekuler, Meeting of Am. Psychol. Assoc. (1972).

Nature (1)

L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, Nature 240, 479 (1972); C. Blakemore, J. Nachmias, and P. Sutton, J. Physiol. 210, 727 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

J. P. Thomas, Psychol. Rev. 77, 121 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

A related model is given by D. C. Hood, Vision Res. 13, 759 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Virsu, Vision Res. 14, 433 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Matching test spatial frequency as a function of duration. The test grating was adjusted to match, perceptually, a standard grating of 1 cycle/deg and duration of 1 s. The illusory, perceptual enhancement at any test duration is measured by how far the data point lies below 1.0 cycle/deg. Data are means of 18 observers; ±1 SE are indicated by vertical lines through each data point.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Point of subjective equality (P.S.E.) as a function of test duration for standard gratings of different spatial frequency. Data with the 1 cycle/deg standard are given by open triangles; data with the 2 cycles/deg standard are given by filled triangles; data with the 4 cycles/deg standard are given by open circles; data with the 8 cycles/deg standard are given by filled circles. All data have been normalized: matches between test grating and a standard have been divided by that standard’s spatial frequency. For clarity, curves have been displaced along the vertical axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contrast sensitivity as a function of test-grating spatial frequency. Results for test flashes of 16, 90, 512, and 1000 ms are given by asterisks, propellers, octagons, and stars, respectively. The lowest curve is the least-squares fit to results with 16 ms flashes. The model equation was of the form, sensitivity = kecF, where F is spatial frequency. The same curve (by adjustment of the k parameter, has been fitted by eye to data with 90 ms (middle curve), and to data with the two longest durations (top curve).