Abstract

This paper describes a new technique for detecting color-defective individuals, based upon the isolation of a pattern response from the visual evoked response. Specifically designed targets were produced from equal-luminance hues that lie on the confusion lines of deuteranopes, protanopes, and tritanopes. Sixteen color normals, eight deuteranopes, eight protanopes, and one tritanope were tested with these targets. The results showed that color normals give a pattern response to patterns formed of hue differences only; this response is similar to that produced by luminance differences. Color-defective individuals, on the other hand, give no pattern response to targets formed of hues that they cannot discriminate, although they give pattern responses for luminance differences.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Clynes and M. Kohn, in The Evoked Potentials, edited by W. Cobb and C. Morocutti (Elsevier, New York, 1967), pp. 82–96.
  2. T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. B. Siegfried, Am. J. Optom. 47, 282 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/4Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1972), pp. 713–714.
  7. J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).
  10. C. T. White, Am. Psychol. 24, 211 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, Naval Submarine Medical Center, Groton, Conn., (1974).
  15. H. M. Paulson, in Color Vision (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.1973), pp. 34–64.
  16. R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).
  18. N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).
  22. F. S. Weingarten, Science 176, 692 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 45 (1973).
    [Crossref]

1974 (1)

D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 45 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (3)

F. S. Weingarten, Science 176, 692 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (3)

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).
[Crossref]

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).

J. B. Siegfried, Am. J. Optom. 47, 282 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

C. T. White, Am. Psychol. 24, 211 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (3)

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).

1967 (1)

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

1966 (3)

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (2)

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

Abramov, I.

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).

Childers, D. G.

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clynes, M.

M. Clynes and M. Kohn, in The Evoked Potentials, edited by W. Cobb and C. Morocutti (Elsevier, New York, 1967), pp. 82–96.

Costa, L. D.

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Valois, R. L.

Duffy, F. H.

F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).
[Crossref]

Falgout, J. C.

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fry, A.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilden, L.

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 45 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hagenouw, R. B.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Harter, M. R.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).
[Crossref]

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).

Jacobs, G. H.

Jones, R. W.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jubbers, J. A.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Kinney, J. A. S.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, Naval Submarine Medical Center, Groton, Conn., (1974).

Kohn, M.

M. Clynes and M. Kohn, in The Evoked Potentials, edited by W. Cobb and C. Morocutti (Elsevier, New York, 1967), pp. 82–96.

Lodge, H. R.

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 45 (1973).
[Crossref]

Luria, S. M.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maffei, L.

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).

McKay, C. L.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, Naval Submarine Medical Center, Groton, Conn., (1974).

Mensch, A. J.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulson, H. M.

H. M. Paulson, in Color Vision (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.1973), pp. 34–64.

Perry, N. W.

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regan, D.

D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rengstorff, R. H.

F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).
[Crossref]

Rietveld, W. J.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/4Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1972), pp. 713–714.

Shipley, T.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegfried, J. B.

J. B. Siegfried, Am. J. Optom. 47, 282 (1970).
[Crossref]

Spehlmann, R.

R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

Spekreijse, H.

D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spoor, Th. A. C.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Tordoir, W. E. M.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Vaughan, H. G.

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weingarten, F. S.

F. S. Weingarten, Science 176, 692 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, C. T.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).
[Crossref]

C. T. White, Am. Psychol. 24, 211 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).

Wooten, B. R.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/4Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1972), pp. 713–714.

Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. (1)

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Am. J. Optom. (2)

J. B. Siegfried, Am. J. Optom. 47, 282 (1970).
[Crossref]

F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).
[Crossref]

Am. Psychol. (1)

C. T. White, Am. Psychol. 24, 211 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. (2)

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2)

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).

Science (3)

F. S. Weingarten, Science 176, 692 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (6)

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Vaughan, L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. Clynes and M. Kohn, in The Evoked Potentials, edited by W. Cobb and C. Morocutti (Elsevier, New York, 1967), pp. 82–96.

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, Naval Submarine Medical Center, Groton, Conn., (1974).

H. M. Paulson, in Color Vision (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C.1973), pp. 34–64.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/4Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1972), pp. 713–714.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the technique for obtaining a pattern response. Routine VER’s for a blank field (——) and a checked field (— —) for two subjects are on the left-hand side. The results of subtraction of these data, the add/subs, are on the right-hand side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CIE chromaticity diagram of the colors used to construct the patterns for dichromatic subjects. Each set lies on a confusion line of a deuteranope, a protanope, or a tritanope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The average pattern response for eight color-normal subjects, for luminance-contrast targets: — — black–white; · · · · gray, high contrast; —— gray, low contrast.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The average pattern response for the same eight color-normal subjects, for hue-contrast targets: —— the orange–green and — — purple–blue.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average pattern response to low-luminance-contrast target for three groups of subjects, two color-normal (—— and — —) and one deuteranopic (· · · ·).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average pattern response of color-normal (×——×) and protanopic (●– – –●) subjects, for the orange–green protanopic target.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average pattern response of color-normal (×——×) and protanopic (●– – –●) subjects, for the medium-luminance-contrast target.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pattern responses of one unusual protanope to the hue (— —) and luminance (——) targets.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pattern response for two color normals (— — and – – –) and one tritanope (——), to the tritanope’s hue target.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Amplitude of add/sub components (μv).

Tables Icon

Table II Amplitude of add/sub components (μv).