Abstract

This paper describes a new technique for detecting color-defective individuals, based upon the isolation of a pattern response from the visual evoked response. Specifically designed targets were produced from equal-luminance hues that lie on the confusion lines of deuteranopes, protanopes, and tritanopes. Sixteen color normals, eight deuteranopes, eight protanopes, and one tritanope were tested with these targets. The results showed that color normals give a pattern response to patterns formed of hue differences only; this response is similar to that produced by luminance differences. Color-defective individuals, on the other hand, give no pattern response to targets formed of hues that they cannot discriminate, although they give pattern responses for luminance differences.

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  1. M. Clynes and M. Kohn, in The Evoked Potentials, edited by W. Cobb and C. Morocutti (Elsevier, New York, 1967), pp. 82–96.
  2. T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).
  3. T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).
  4. T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).
  5. J. B. Siegfried, Am. J. Optom. 47, 282 (1970).
  6. L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/4 Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1972), pp. 713–714.
  7. J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).
  8. R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965).
  9. W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).
  10. C. T. White, Am. Psychol. 24, 211 (1969).
  11. M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).
  12. J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).
  13. F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).
  14. J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, Naval Submarine Medical Center, Groton, Conn., Nav. Sub. Med. Rsch. Lab. Rep. No. 778 (1974).
  15. H. M. Paulson, in Color Vision (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C. 1973), pp. 34–64.
  16. R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).
  17. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).
  18. N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).
  19. D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).
  20. H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).
  21. F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).
  22. F. S. Weingarten, Science 176, 692 (1972).
  23. S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 45 (1973).

Abramov, I.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).

Childers, D. G.

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).

Clynes, M.

M. Clynes and M. Kohn, in The Evoked Potentials, edited by W. Cobb and C. Morocutti (Elsevier, New York, 1967), pp. 82–96.

Costa, L. D.

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

Duffy, F. H.

F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).

Falgout, J. C.

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).

Fry, A.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).

Gilden, L.

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 45 (1973).

Hagenouw, R. B.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Harter, M. R.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).

Jacobs, G. H.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

Jones, R. W.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).

Jubbers, J. A.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Kinney, J. A. S.

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, Naval Submarine Medical Center, Groton, Conn., Nav. Sub. Med. Rsch. Lab. Rep. No. 778 (1974).

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).

Kohn, M.

M. Clynes and M. Kohn, in The Evoked Potentials, edited by W. Cobb and C. Morocutti (Elsevier, New York, 1967), pp. 82–96.

Lodge, H. R.

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 45 (1973).

Luria, S. M.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).

Maffei, L.

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).

McKay, C. L.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, Naval Submarine Medical Center, Groton, Conn., Nav. Sub. Med. Rsch. Lab. Rep. No. 778 (1974).

Mensch, A. J.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).

Paulson, H. M.

H. M. Paulson, in Color Vision (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C. 1973), pp. 34–64.

Perry, N. W.

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).

Regan, D.

D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).

Rengstorff, R. H.

F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).

Rietveld, W. J.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/4 Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1972), pp. 713–714.

Shipley, T.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).

Siegfried, J. B.

J. B. Siegfried, Am. J. Optom. 47, 282 (1970).

Spehlmann, R.

R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965).

Spekreijse, H.

D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).

Spoor, Th. A. C.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Tordoir, W. E. M.

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

Vaughan, Jr., H. G.

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).

Weingarten, F. S.

F. S. Weingarten, Science 176, 692 (1972).

White, C. T.

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).

C. T. White, Am. Psychol. 24, 211 (1969).

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).

Wooten, B. R.

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/4 Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1972), pp. 713–714.

Other (23)

M. Clynes and M. Kohn, in The Evoked Potentials, edited by W. Cobb and C. Morocutti (Elsevier, New York, 1967), pp. 82–96.

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Science 150, 1162 (1965).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 6, 657 (1966).

T. Shipley, R. W. Jones, and A. Fry, Vision Res. 8, 409 (1968).

J. B. Siegfried, Am. J. Optom. 47, 282 (1970).

L. A. Riggs and B. R. Wooten, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/4 Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin · Heidelberg · New York, 1972), pp. 713–714.

J. A. S. Kinney, C. L. McKay, A. J. Mensch, and S. M. Luria, Vision Res. 12, 1733 (1972).

R. Spehlmann, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19, 560 (1965).

W. J. Rietveld, W. E. M. Tordoir, R. B. Hagenouw, J. A. Jubbers, and Th. A. C. Spoor, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 14, 259 (1967).

C. T. White, Am. Psychol. 24, 211 (1969).

M. R. Harter and C. T. White, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 48 (1970).

J. C. Armington, Vision Res. 8, 263 (1968).

F. H. Duffy and R. H. Rengstorff, Am. J. Optom. 48, 717 (1971).

J. A. S. Kinney and C. L. McKay, Naval Submarine Medical Center, Groton, Conn., Nav. Sub. Med. Rsch. Lab. Rep. No. 778 (1974).

H. M. Paulson, in Color Vision (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C. 1973), pp. 34–64.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 215 (1968).

N. W. Perry, D. G. Childers, and J. C. Falgout, Science 177, 813 (1972).

D. Regan and H. Spekreijse, Vision Res. 14, 89 (1974).

H. G. Vaughan, Jr., L. D. Costa, and L. Gilden, Vision Res. 6, 645 (1966).

F. W. Campbell and L. Maffei, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 635 (1970).

F. S. Weingarten, Science 176, 692 (1972).

S. L. Guth and H. R. Lodge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 45 (1973).

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