Abstract

Modulation transfer functions (MTF’s) of high-resolution plates Agfa—Gevaert Scientia 8E70, 8E75, 8E75B, and 10E75 have been determined. A strong influence of the development conditions was found and studied. Observations and models given in the literature on adjacency effects at low spatial frequencies were extended and verified for spatial frequencies up to 1500 cycles/mm. This was possible by the use of a new type of microdensitometer (MSSM) and because the optical MTF of these plates is close to 1. By use of very weak developers, an apparent increase of the MTF by factors up to 2 could be achieved. Because this enhancement occurred only in connection with very low γ, there is no gain of contrast in applications to microreproduction. The diffraction efficiency of holograms was not improved, but exposure latitude was increased. Development effects may alter reconstructed wavefields, and spatial filters may deviate considerably from their designs, especially when low-γ development is used to obtain wide latitude.

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  2. C. N. Nelson, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 82 (1971).
  3. G. C. Higgins, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 106 (1971).
  4. R. S. Barrows and R. N. Wolfe, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 472 (1971).
  5. R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 425 (1959).
  6. L. O. Hendeberg, Ark. Fys. 16, 457 (1960).
  7. P. G. Powell, J. Photogr. Sci. 9, 312 (1961).
  8. K. Spenner, M.S. thesis (Dept. of Photographic Science, Technical University, Munich, 1963).
  9. H. Frieser and H. Kramer, Photogr. Korresp. 102, 69 (1966).
  10. G. Langner and R. Müller, J. Photogr. Sci. 15, 1 (1967).
  11. H. Frieser and M. Pflugbeil, Z. Angew. Physik 22, 336 (1967).
  12. R. Reuther, Radiol. Diagnost. 10, 417 (1969).
  13. E. Görgens and R. Reuther, Photogr. Korresp. 107, 222 (1971).
  14. K. Biedermann, Optik 28, 160 (1968).
  15. K. Biedermann and K. A. Stetson, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 361 (1969).
  16. K. Biedermann and S. Johansson, Optik 35, 391 (1972).
  17. K. Biedermann and S. Johansson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1385A (1972).
  18. H. T. Buschmann and H. J. Metz, Opt. Commun. 2, 373 (1971).
  19. H. Frieser, Kino-Technik 17, 167 (1935).
  20. R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 982 (1961).
  21. J. L. Simonds, J. R. Kelch, and G. C. Higgins, Appl. Opt. 3, 23 (1964).
  22. R. L. Lamberts, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 71, 635 (1962).
  23. Modulation Transfer Data for Kodak Films, Pamphlet No. P-49, 1967.
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  26. H. T. Buschmann, in Optical and Acoustical Holography, edited by E. Camatini (Plenum, New York, 1972), p. 151.
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  28. G. W. Stroke, F. Furrer, and D. R. Lamberty, Opt. Commun. 1, 141 (1969).
  29. J. W. Goodman, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, and J. Knotts, Appl. Opt. 8, 1581 (1969).
  30. K. Biedermann and N.-E. Molin, J. Phys. E. 3, 669 (1970).
  31. G. C. Brock, Image Evaluation for Aerial Photography (Focal, London, 1970).
  32. G. W. W. Stevens, Photogr. J. 82, 42 (1942).
  33. M. Levy, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 46 (1967).
  34. A. Vander Lugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139 (1964).
  35. D. P. Jablonowski, R. A. Heinz, and J. O. Artman, Appl. Opt. 10, 1988 (1971).
  36. H. Strübin, Photogr. Korresp. 104, 5, 26, 53 (1968).
  37. W. F. Berg, Appl. Opt. 8, 2407 (1969).
  38. F. G. Kaspar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 37 (1973).
  39. H. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 802 (1972).
  40. K. Biedermann and H. Frieser, Optik 23, 75 (1965).
  41. C. N. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 11, 87 (1972).
  42. K. Biedermann, Appl. Opt. 10, 584 (1971).
  43. S.-I. Ragnarsson, Phys. Scr. 2, 145 (1970).
  44. H. M. Smith and C. A. Callari, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 487A (1973).

Buschmann, H. T.

H. T. Buschmann, in Optical and Acoustical Holography, edited by E. Camatini (Plenum, New York, 1972), p. 151.

Vander Lugt, A.

A. Vander Lugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139 (1964).

Artman, J. O.

D. P. Jablonowski, R. A. Heinz, and J. O. Artman, Appl. Opt. 10, 1988 (1971).

Barrows, R. S.

R. S. Barrows and R. N. Wolfe, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 472 (1971).

Berg, W. F.

W. F. Berg, Appl. Opt. 8, 2407 (1969).

Biedermann, K.

K. Biedermann and N.-E. Molin, J. Phys. E. 3, 669 (1970).

K. Biedermann and H. Frieser, Optik 23, 75 (1965).

K. Biedermann, Optik 28, 160 (1968).

K. Biedermann and S. Johansson, Optik 35, 391 (1972).

K. Biedermann and S. Johansson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1385A (1972).

K. Biedermann and K. A. Stetson, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 361 (1969).

K. Biedermann, Appl. Opt. 10, 584 (1971).

Brock, G. C.

G. C. Brock, Image Evaluation for Aerial Photography (Focal, London, 1970).

Buschmann, H. T.

H. T. Buschmann and H. J. Metz, Opt. Commun. 2, 373 (1971).

Callari, C. A.

H. M. Smith and C. A. Callari, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 487A (1973).

Frieser, H.

H. Frieser, Kino-Technik 17, 167 (1935).

K. Biedermann and H. Frieser, Optik 23, 75 (1965).

H. Frieser and H. Kramer, Photogr. Korresp. 102, 69 (1966).

H. Frieser and M. Pflugbeil, Z. Angew. Physik 22, 336 (1967).

Furrer, F.

G. W. Stroke, F. Furrer, and D. R. Lamberty, Opt. Commun. 1, 141 (1969).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, and J. Knotts, Appl. Opt. 8, 1581 (1969).

Görgens, E.

E. Görgens and R. Reuther, Photogr. Korresp. 107, 222 (1971).

Hansen, G.

G. Hansen and A. Richter, Optik 31, 488 (1970).

Heinz, R. A.

D. P. Jablonowski, R. A. Heinz, and J. O. Artman, Appl. Opt. 10, 1988 (1971).

Hendeberg, L. O.

L. O. Hendeberg, Ark. Fys. 16, 457 (1960).

Higgins, G. C.

G. C. Higgins, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 106 (1971).

J. L. Simonds, J. R. Kelch, and G. C. Higgins, Appl. Opt. 3, 23 (1964).

Jablonowski, D. P.

D. P. Jablonowski, R. A. Heinz, and J. O. Artman, Appl. Opt. 10, 1988 (1971).

Jackson, D. W.

J. W. Goodman, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, and J. Knotts, Appl. Opt. 8, 1581 (1969).

James, T. H.

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillian, New York, 1966), p. 521.

Johansson, S.

K. Biedermann and S. Johansson, Optik 35, 391 (1972).

K. Biedermann and S. Johansson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1385A (1972).

Kaspar, F. G.

F. G. Kaspar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 37 (1973).

Kelch, J. R.

J. L. Simonds, J. R. Kelch, and G. C. Higgins, Appl. Opt. 3, 23 (1964).

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 269 (1960); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 319 (1961).

Knotts, J.

J. W. Goodman, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, and J. Knotts, Appl. Opt. 8, 1581 (1969).

Kramer, H.

H. Frieser and H. Kramer, Photogr. Korresp. 102, 69 (1966).

Lamberts, R. L.

R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 425 (1959).

R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 982 (1961).

R. L. Lamberts, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 71, 635 (1962).

Lamberty, D. R.

G. W. Stroke, F. Furrer, and D. R. Lamberty, Opt. Commun. 1, 141 (1969).

Langner, G.

G. Langner and R. Müller, J. Photogr. Sci. 15, 1 (1967).

Lehman, M.

J. W. Goodman, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, and J. Knotts, Appl. Opt. 8, 1581 (1969).

Levy, M.

M. Levy, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 46 (1967).

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillian, New York, 1966), p. 521.

Metz, H. J.

H. T. Buschmann and H. J. Metz, Opt. Commun. 2, 373 (1971).

Molin, N.-E.

K. Biedermann and N.-E. Molin, J. Phys. E. 3, 669 (1970).

Müller, R.

G. Langner and R. Müller, J. Photogr. Sci. 15, 1 (1967).

Nelson, C. N.

C. N. Nelson, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 82 (1971).

C. N. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 11, 87 (1972).

Pflugbeil, M.

H. Frieser and M. Pflugbeil, Z. Angew. Physik 22, 336 (1967).

Powell, P. G.

P. G. Powell, J. Photogr. Sci. 9, 312 (1961).

Ragnarsson, S.-I.

S.-I. Ragnarsson, Phys. Scr. 2, 145 (1970).

Reuther, R.

E. Görgens and R. Reuther, Photogr. Korresp. 107, 222 (1971).

R. Reuther, Radiol. Diagnost. 10, 417 (1969).

Richter, A.

G. Hansen and A. Richter, Optik 31, 488 (1970).

Sayanagi, K.

K. Sayanagi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 185 (1960).

Simonds, J. L.

J. L. Simonds, J. R. Kelch, and G. C. Higgins, Appl. Opt. 3, 23 (1964).

Smith, H. M.

H. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 802 (1972).

H. M. Smith and C. A. Callari, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 487A (1973).

Spenner, K.

K. Spenner, M.S. thesis (Dept. of Photographic Science, Technical University, Munich, 1963).

Stetson, K. A.

K. Biedermann and K. A. Stetson, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 361 (1969).

Stevens, G. W. W.

G. W. W. Stevens, Photogr. J. 82, 42 (1942).

Stroke, G. W.

G. W. Stroke, F. Furrer, and D. R. Lamberty, Opt. Commun. 1, 141 (1969).

Strübin, H.

H. Strübin, Photogr. Korresp. 104, 5, 26, 53 (1968).

Wolfe, R. N.

R. S. Barrows and R. N. Wolfe, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 472 (1971).

Other

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillian, New York, 1966), p. 521.

C. N. Nelson, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 82 (1971).

G. C. Higgins, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 106 (1971).

R. S. Barrows and R. N. Wolfe, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 15, 472 (1971).

R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 425 (1959).

L. O. Hendeberg, Ark. Fys. 16, 457 (1960).

P. G. Powell, J. Photogr. Sci. 9, 312 (1961).

K. Spenner, M.S. thesis (Dept. of Photographic Science, Technical University, Munich, 1963).

H. Frieser and H. Kramer, Photogr. Korresp. 102, 69 (1966).

G. Langner and R. Müller, J. Photogr. Sci. 15, 1 (1967).

H. Frieser and M. Pflugbeil, Z. Angew. Physik 22, 336 (1967).

R. Reuther, Radiol. Diagnost. 10, 417 (1969).

E. Görgens and R. Reuther, Photogr. Korresp. 107, 222 (1971).

K. Biedermann, Optik 28, 160 (1968).

K. Biedermann and K. A. Stetson, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 361 (1969).

K. Biedermann and S. Johansson, Optik 35, 391 (1972).

K. Biedermann and S. Johansson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1385A (1972).

H. T. Buschmann and H. J. Metz, Opt. Commun. 2, 373 (1971).

H. Frieser, Kino-Technik 17, 167 (1935).

R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 982 (1961).

J. L. Simonds, J. R. Kelch, and G. C. Higgins, Appl. Opt. 3, 23 (1964).

R. L. Lamberts, J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 71, 635 (1962).

Modulation Transfer Data for Kodak Films, Pamphlet No. P-49, 1967.

K. Sayanagi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 185 (1960).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 269 (1960); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 319 (1961).

H. T. Buschmann, in Optical and Acoustical Holography, edited by E. Camatini (Plenum, New York, 1972), p. 151.

G. Hansen and A. Richter, Optik 31, 488 (1970).

G. W. Stroke, F. Furrer, and D. R. Lamberty, Opt. Commun. 1, 141 (1969).

J. W. Goodman, D. W. Jackson, M. Lehman, and J. Knotts, Appl. Opt. 8, 1581 (1969).

K. Biedermann and N.-E. Molin, J. Phys. E. 3, 669 (1970).

G. C. Brock, Image Evaluation for Aerial Photography (Focal, London, 1970).

G. W. W. Stevens, Photogr. J. 82, 42 (1942).

M. Levy, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 46 (1967).

A. Vander Lugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139 (1964).

D. P. Jablonowski, R. A. Heinz, and J. O. Artman, Appl. Opt. 10, 1988 (1971).

H. Strübin, Photogr. Korresp. 104, 5, 26, 53 (1968).

W. F. Berg, Appl. Opt. 8, 2407 (1969).

F. G. Kaspar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 37 (1973).

H. M. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 802 (1972).

K. Biedermann and H. Frieser, Optik 23, 75 (1965).

C. N. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 11, 87 (1972).

K. Biedermann, Appl. Opt. 10, 584 (1971).

S.-I. Ragnarsson, Phys. Scr. 2, 145 (1970).

H. M. Smith and C. A. Callari, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 487A (1973).

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