Abstract

The optical properties of very-thin chromium films and their suitability for use in precision, scanning, reflection interferometry have been studied. The thickness range was from 0–36 nm. The reflectances and transmittances were measured with an absolute reflectometer. The phase change <i>F</i> = 2β<sub>1</sub>-Φ<sub>1</sub>-Φ<sub>1</sub>′ of the film was measured by scanning interferometry, where ø<sub>1</sub> and Φ<sub>1</sub>′ are the phase changes at reflection from the air/film and silica substrate/film interfaces, respectively, and β<sub>1</sub> is the phase change on transmission through the film. F influences the form and symmetry of the reflection interference fringes. The phase changes ø<sub>1</sub> and ø<sub>1</sub>′ have also been measured directly. For films 6–10 nm thick (air/film reflectance 20–40%), and with a highly reflecting second surface, the reflection fringes are transmission-like fringes (<i>F</i>→2n π) of high contrast and good symmetry. Fringes of optimum contrast (visibility nearly unity) and symmetry are obtained for films with air/film reflectances of 20–30%, which was obtained with thicknesses from 6–8 nm. Accurate settings on these fringes can be made to the order of 0.001 fringe in a scanning-interferometer system. The results indicate that the films have continuous structures, with optical properties insensitive to wavelength, and with the phase properties very different from metal films such as silver.

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  2. J. Holden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 504 (1951).
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  27. A. R. Cownie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 425 (1963).
  28. F. D. Smith, Thesis, (Inst. of Optics, Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y., 1951).
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  31. N. Barakat and F. G. Abouzakakhm, Opt. Acta 12, 321 (1965).
  32. B. Bolger, Opt. Commun. 4, 313 (1971).

Abouzakakhm, F. G.

N. Barakat and F. G. Abouzakakhm, Opt. Acta 12, 321 (1965).

Barakat, N.

N. Barakat and F. G. Abouzakakhm, Opt. Acta 12, 321 (1965).

Bennett, Jean M.

Jean M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 612 (1964).

Blevin, W. R.

J. E. Shaw and W. R. Blevin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 334 (1964).

Bolger, B.

B. Bolger, Opt. Commun. 4, 313 (1971).

Bruce, C. F.

C. F. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 10, 880 (1971).

C. F. Bruce, Aust. J. Sci. Res. 4, 117 (1951).

C. F. Bruce and R. M. Hill, Aust. J. Sci. Res. 14, 64 (1961).

Bünnagel, R.

F. Spiegelhalter, R. Bünnagel, and J. Moser, Optik 311, 533 (1970).

Ciddor, P. E.

P. E. Ciddor, Opt. Acta 7, 4 (1960).

Clothier, W. K.

W. K. Clothier, Metrologia 1, 18 (1965).

Cownie, A. R.

A. R. Cownie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 425 (1963).

Dufour, C.

C. Dufour, J. Phys. Rad. 11, 327 (1950).

Hamy, M.

M. Hamy, J. Phys. Rad. 5, 789 (1906).

Hargraves, C. Mc. D.

C. Mc. D. Hargraves, Nature 197, 890 (1963).

Henderson, G.

G. Henderson and C. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1052 (1964).

G. Henderson and C. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1551 (1966).

Hill, R. M.

R. M. Hill and C. Weaver, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1140 (1958).

R. M. Hill and C. Weaver, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1464 (1958).

C. Weaver, R. M. Hill, and J. E. S. MacLeod, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 992 (1959).

C. F. Bruce and R. M. Hill, Aust. J. Sci. Res. 14, 64 (1961).

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman and J. Riseman, in Vacuum Symposium Transactions, edited by C. Robert Meissner (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 218.

Holden, J.

J. Holden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 504 (1951).

J. Holden, Proc. Phys. Soc. (Lond.) 62, 405 (1949).

Idczak, E. F.

E. F. Idczak, Opt. Spektrosk. 15, 107 (1963) [Opt. Spectrosc. 15, 54 (1962)].

E. F. Idczak, Opt. Spektrosk. 17, 923 (1964) [Opt. Spectrosc. 17, 501 (1964)].

Lee, P. H.

J. Pastor and P. H. Lee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 149 (1967).

MacLeod, J. E. S.

C. Weaver, R. M. Hill, and J. E. S. MacLeod, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 992 (1959).

Moser, J.

F. Spiegelhalter, R. Bünnagel, and J. Moser, Optik 311, 533 (1970).

Nosulenko, N. A.

I. N. Shkliarevskii, N. A. Nosulenko, and A. N. Ryazanov, Opt. Spektrosk. 18, 102 (1965) [Opt. Spectrosc. 18, 51 (1965)].

Pastor, J.

J. Pastor and P. H. Lee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 149 (1967).

Riseman, J.

D. M. Hoffman and J. Riseman, in Vacuum Symposium Transactions, edited by C. Robert Meissner (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 218.

Ryazanov, A. N.

I. N. Shkliarevskii, N. A. Nosulenko, and A. N. Ryazanov, Opt. Spektrosk. 18, 102 (1965) [Opt. Spectrosc. 18, 51 (1965)].

Scott, G. D.

R. S. Sennett and G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).

Scow, K. B.

K. B. Scow and R. E. Thun, in Vacuum Symposium Transactions, edited by G. H. Bancroft (Pergamon, New York, 1962), p. 151.

Sennett, R. S.

R. S. Sennett and G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).

Shaw, J. E.

J. E. Shaw and W. R. Blevin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 334 (1964).

Shkliarevskii, I. N.

I. N. Shkliarevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 26, 333 (1956) [Sov. Phys.-Tech. Phys. 1, 327 (1956)].

I. N. Shkliarevskii, N. A. Nosulenko, and A. N. Ryazanov, Opt. Spektrosk. 18, 102 (1965) [Opt. Spectrosc. 18, 51 (1965)].

Smith, F. D.

F. D. Smith, Thesis, (Inst. of Optics, Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y., 1951).

Spiegelhalter, F.

F. Spiegelhalter, R. Bünnagel, and J. Moser, Optik 311, 533 (1970).

Thun, R. E.

K. B. Scow and R. E. Thun, in Vacuum Symposium Transactions, edited by G. H. Bancroft (Pergamon, New York, 1962), p. 151.

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948), p. 147.

Weaver, C.

G. Henderson and C. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1551 (1966).

G. Henderson and C. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1052 (1964).

R. M. Hill and C. Weaver, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1140 (1958).

R. M. Hill and C. Weaver, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1464 (1958).

C. Weaver, R. M. Hill, and J. E. S. MacLeod, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 992 (1959).

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, Z. Phys. 105, 269 (1937).

Other (32)

R. S. Sennett and G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).

J. Holden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 504 (1951).

R. M. Hill and C. Weaver, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1140 (1958).

R. M. Hill and C. Weaver, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 1464 (1958).

C. Weaver, R. M. Hill, and J. E. S. MacLeod, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 992 (1959).

G. Henderson and C. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1052 (1964).

G. Henderson and C. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1551 (1966).

W. K. Clothier, Metrologia 1, 18 (1965).

D. M. Hoffman and J. Riseman, in Vacuum Symposium Transactions, edited by C. Robert Meissner (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 218.

K. B. Scow and R. E. Thun, in Vacuum Symposium Transactions, edited by G. H. Bancroft (Pergamon, New York, 1962), p. 151.

E. F. Idczak, Opt. Spektrosk. 15, 107 (1963) [Opt. Spectrosc. 15, 54 (1962)].

E. F. Idczak, Opt. Spektrosk. 17, 923 (1964) [Opt. Spectrosc. 17, 501 (1964)].

J. Holden, Proc. Phys. Soc. (Lond.) 62, 405 (1949).

C. Dufour, J. Phys. Rad. 11, 327 (1950).

F. Spiegelhalter, R. Bünnagel, and J. Moser, Optik 311, 533 (1970).

I. N. Shkliarevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 26, 333 (1956) [Sov. Phys.-Tech. Phys. 1, 327 (1956)].

P. E. Ciddor, Opt. Acta 7, 4 (1960).

Jean M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 612 (1964).

S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948), p. 147.

J. E. Shaw and W. R. Blevin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 334 (1964).

H. Wolter, Z. Phys. 105, 269 (1937).

C. F. Bruce and R. M. Hill, Aust. J. Sci. Res. 14, 64 (1961).

C. F. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 10, 880 (1971).

M. Hamy, J. Phys. Rad. 5, 789 (1906).

C. F. Bruce, Aust. J. Sci. Res. 4, 117 (1951).

C. Mc. D. Hargraves, Nature 197, 890 (1963).

A. R. Cownie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 425 (1963).

F. D. Smith, Thesis, (Inst. of Optics, Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y., 1951).

I. N. Shkliarevskii, N. A. Nosulenko, and A. N. Ryazanov, Opt. Spektrosk. 18, 102 (1965) [Opt. Spectrosc. 18, 51 (1965)].

J. Pastor and P. H. Lee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 149 (1967).

N. Barakat and F. G. Abouzakakhm, Opt. Acta 12, 321 (1965).

B. Bolger, Opt. Commun. 4, 313 (1971).

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