Abstract

We have measured the diffraction pattern of the edge of a transparent sheet for plane-polarized microwaves (λ=3.0 cm) for angles of incidence from 0° to 45°. The material was expanded polyurethane (Styrofoam) with index of refraction 1.0150 (that of air being 1.0003). The thickness of the sheet, and thus of the rectangular edge, varied from 1.7 to 13.5 wavelengths. Our initial purpose was to study the diffraction of microwaves by phase objects, as an analog that might indicate general ways of improving the contrast in images of phase objects obtained with an electron microscope and, in particular, ways of explaining electron edge diffraction. The high contrast of as much as 2 to 1 of irradiance of the edge pattern for material of such high transparency (99.5% for thickness of 3.4 wavelengths) was surprising. We have explained the major features of our results on the basis of Huygens’s principle and Fresnel’s equations for reflection and refraction at the surface of the edge of finite thickness.

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  1. C. L. Andrews, Optics of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1964).
  2. R. D. Kodis, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 249 (1952).
  3. L. Barkley, B. A. Horvath, and T. J. F. Pavlasek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 673 (1973).
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  5. B. N. Harden, Proc. IEE (Lond.), Pt. III. 99, 229 (1952).
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  9. C. R. Carpenter, Ph.D. thesis (State University of New York at Albany, 1972) (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., Order No. 7 325 701).
  10. R. O. Dell, C. R. Carpenter, and C. L. Andrews, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 902 (1972).
  11. J. Komrska, in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 30, edited by L. Marton (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 139.
  12. J. N. Turner, Ph.D. thesis (State University of New York at Buffalo, 1973) (University Microfilms, Ann. Arbor, Mich., Order No. 7 319 245).
  13. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 41–51.
  14. C. Ferreira-Lina, A. Howie, and P. F. Linington, in Proceedings of the Fifth European Congress on Electron Microscopy (University of Manchester, Institute of Physics, London, 1972), p. 418.

Komrska, J.

J. Komrska, in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 30, edited by L. Marton (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 139.

Andrews, C. L.

C. L. Andrews, Optics of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1964).

R. O. Dell, C. R. Carpenter, and C. L. Andrews, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 902 (1972).

C. L. Andrews, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 761 (1950).

A. Golab and C. L. Andrews, Am. J. Phys. 39, 121 (1971).

Barkley, L.

L. Barkley, B. A. Horvath, and T. J. F. Pavlasek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 673 (1973).

Barrett, J. D.

J. D. Barrett and F. S. Harris, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 637 (1962).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 41–51.

Carpenter, C. R.

C. R. Carpenter, Ph.D. thesis (State University of New York at Albany, 1972) (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., Order No. 7 325 701).

C. R. Carpenter, Am. J. Phys. 39, 120 (1971).

R. O. Dell, C. R. Carpenter, and C. L. Andrews, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 902 (1972).

Dell, R. O.

R. O. Dell, C. R. Carpenter, and C. L. Andrews, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 902 (1972).

Ferreira-Lina, C.

C. Ferreira-Lina, A. Howie, and P. F. Linington, in Proceedings of the Fifth European Congress on Electron Microscopy (University of Manchester, Institute of Physics, London, 1972), p. 418.

Golab, A.

A. Golab and C. L. Andrews, Am. J. Phys. 39, 121 (1971).

Harden, B. N.

B. N. Harden, Proc. IEE (Lond.), Pt. III. 99, 229 (1952).

Harris, Jr., F. S.

J. D. Barrett and F. S. Harris, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 637 (1962).

Horvath, B. A.

L. Barkley, B. A. Horvath, and T. J. F. Pavlasek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 673 (1973).

Howie, A.

C. Ferreira-Lina, A. Howie, and P. F. Linington, in Proceedings of the Fifth European Congress on Electron Microscopy (University of Manchester, Institute of Physics, London, 1972), p. 418.

Kodis, R. D.

R. D. Kodis, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 249 (1952).

Linington, P. F.

C. Ferreira-Lina, A. Howie, and P. F. Linington, in Proceedings of the Fifth European Congress on Electron Microscopy (University of Manchester, Institute of Physics, London, 1972), p. 418.

Pavlasek, T. J. F.

L. Barkley, B. A. Horvath, and T. J. F. Pavlasek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 673 (1973).

Turner, J. N.

J. N. Turner, Ph.D. thesis (State University of New York at Buffalo, 1973) (University Microfilms, Ann. Arbor, Mich., Order No. 7 319 245).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 41–51.

Other (14)

C. L. Andrews, Optics of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1964).

R. D. Kodis, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 249 (1952).

L. Barkley, B. A. Horvath, and T. J. F. Pavlasek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 673 (1973).

J. D. Barrett and F. S. Harris, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 637 (1962).

B. N. Harden, Proc. IEE (Lond.), Pt. III. 99, 229 (1952).

C. R. Carpenter, Am. J. Phys. 39, 120 (1971).

A. Golab and C. L. Andrews, Am. J. Phys. 39, 121 (1971).

C. L. Andrews, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 761 (1950).

C. R. Carpenter, Ph.D. thesis (State University of New York at Albany, 1972) (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., Order No. 7 325 701).

R. O. Dell, C. R. Carpenter, and C. L. Andrews, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 902 (1972).

J. Komrska, in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 30, edited by L. Marton (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 139.

J. N. Turner, Ph.D. thesis (State University of New York at Buffalo, 1973) (University Microfilms, Ann. Arbor, Mich., Order No. 7 319 245).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 41–51.

C. Ferreira-Lina, A. Howie, and P. F. Linington, in Proceedings of the Fifth European Congress on Electron Microscopy (University of Manchester, Institute of Physics, London, 1972), p. 418.

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