Abstract

A colorimeter was constructed to measure the size of just-noticeable color differences as a function of observer adaptation. It was of the Burnham type with 1.6° test and matching fields and a 15° adaptation field that had a luminance of 3400 cd/m2. Nine different adaptations were used: dark adaptation, adaptation to five near-planckian white-light sources that had color temperatures in the range 6500–2000 K, and adaptation to three colors, red, green, and blue. Very little difference was found between the sets of discrimination data obtained for adaptations to the five white lights; a slight increase of the size of the just-noticeable color difference with decreasing color temperature was observed. To permit the data to be compared on a basis of equal appearance, rather than equal chromaticity, the colorimeter was modified so that color-appearance shifts could be measured, using a binocular-matching technique. Appearance-shift matrices were computed from the experimental results so that the discrimination data for each adaptation could be plotted in terms of the appearance of colors with adaptation to 6500 K. The results for the white-light adaptations showed that there was very little difference between the data when plotted directly and the data plotted as they would appear in 6500-K adaptation. This was also found for the results obtained with dark adaptation, but it was not true for the results obtained for color adaptations.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  25. Each of the transformation matrices implies a set of fundamental primaries to the output of which the Von Kries coefficient law applies, directly. The chromaticity coordinates of those primaries can be found by use of a method indicated by Brewer (Ref. 10). The results obtained are not consistent for the different pairs of adaptations used, and do not agree with the results obtained by other investigators, who used other experimental techniques. This seems to indicate further, that the Von Kries type of linear hypothesis is not good enough to account for color-appearance shifts. However, the transformation matrices seem to provide satisfactory representations of the data obtained with the binocular-matching technique.

1972 (1)

1971 (2)

1965 (1)

1959 (1)

1957 (1)

1956 (1)

1954 (1)

1953 (1)

1952 (4)

1950 (1)

1949 (2)

R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 62B, 203 (1949).

W. R. J. Brown and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 58, 41 (1946).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 249 (1942).

1941 (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phy. Soc. Lond. 53, 93 (1941).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 88, 167 (1936).

1934 (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 115B, 49 (1934).
[Crossref]

Brewer, W. L.

Brown, W. R. J.

Burnham, R. W.

Evans, R. M.

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, in Visual Problems of Colour (HMSO, London, 1958), Vol. II, p. 429.

Fielder, G. H.

Hunt, R. W. G.

MacAdam, D. L.

Newhall, S. M.

Rowe, S. C. H.

S. C. H. Rowe, The Subjective Scaling of Colour (Ph.D. thesis, The City University, London, 1972).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 58, 41 (1946).
[Crossref]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phy. Soc. Lond. 53, 93 (1941).
[Crossref]

W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 88, 167 (1936).

W. D. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 115B, 49 (1934).
[Crossref]

Wyszecki, G.

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

R. W. Burnham, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 27 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (15)

J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1)

W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 88, 167 (1936).

Proc. Phy. Soc. Lond. (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phy. Soc. Lond. 53, 93 (1941).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. (2)

R. W. G. Hunt, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 62B, 203 (1949).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 58, 41 (1946).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 115B, 49 (1934).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. W. G. Hunt, The Reproduction of Colour, 2nd ed. (Fountain Press, London, 1967).

D. Farnsworth, in Visual Problems of Colour (HMSO, London, 1958), Vol. II, p. 429.

S. C. H. Rowe, The Subjective Scaling of Colour (Ph.D. thesis, The City University, London, 1972).

Each of the transformation matrices implies a set of fundamental primaries to the output of which the Von Kries coefficient law applies, directly. The chromaticity coordinates of those primaries can be found by use of a method indicated by Brewer (Ref. 10). The results obtained are not consistent for the different pairs of adaptations used, and do not agree with the results obtained by other investigators, who used other experimental techniques. This seems to indicate further, that the Von Kries type of linear hypothesis is not good enough to account for color-appearance shifts. However, the transformation matrices seem to provide satisfactory representations of the data obtained with the binocular-matching technique.

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Figures (24)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical arrangement of the discrimination colorimeter, (1) Truflector lamp, (2) heat-absorbing glass, (3) condenser lens, (4) condenser lens, (5) integrating bar, (6) aluminum mirror, (7) square aperture, (8) filter assembly, (9) Truflector lamp, (10) heat-absorbing glass, (11) condenser lens, (12) condenser lens, (13) and (14) fiber-optic light pipe, (15) integrating bar, (16) square aperture, (17) filter assembly, (18) Truflector lamp, (19) integrating bar, (20) mirror, (21) heat-absorbing glass, (22) filter, (23) silvered prism, (24) viewing lens, (25) observer’s right eye.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Arrangement used for the filter assemblies: red filter, Kodak ‘Wratten’ filter 29; green filter, Kodak ‘Wratten’ filter 58; blue filter, Kodak ‘Wratten’ filter 47.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field of view. Two 1.6° test fields separated by 1.5° and surrounded by a 15° adaptation field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Grid lines followed in the discrimination experiments.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Just-noticeable color differences, represented on the u, v chromaticity diagram, obtained with dark adaptation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Just-noticeable color differences, represented on the u, v, chromaticity diagram, obtained with adaptation of 6500-K color temperature (●).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Just-noticeable color differences obtained with adaptation of 5500-K color temperature (●).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Just-noticeable color differences obtained with adaptation of 4000-K color temperature (●).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Just-noticeable color differences obtained with adaptation of 2856-K color temperature (●).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Just-noticeable color differences obtained with adaptation of 2000-K temperature (●).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sizes of just-noticeable color differences, d, as function of the v chromaticity coordinates of the sampling point for lines 1, 4, 7, and 10. — ● —, 6500 K; — ○ —, 5500 K; – – ○ – –, 4000 K; – – ● – –, 2856 K; — × —, 2000 K.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Sizes of just-noticeable color differences, d, as function of the u, chromaticity coordinates of the sampling point for lines 11, 13, and 16. — ● —, 6500 K; — ○ —, 5500 K; – – ○ – –, 4000 K; – – ● – –, 2856 K; — × —, 2000 K.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Just-noticeable color differences obtained with red adaptation.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Just-noticeable color differences obtained with green adaptation.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Just-noticeable color differences obtained with blue adaptation.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Optical arrangement of the appearance colorimeter (1)–(24) as in Fig. 1, (25) aluminum mirror, (26) lamp, (27) integrating bar, (28) heat-absorbing glass, (29) filter, (30) viewing lens, (31) observer’s left eye, (32) observer’s right eye.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Appearance shift of colors when the adaptation was changed from tungsten light (×) to daylight (○).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Tungsten-light color-discrimination data corrected to their daylight appearances.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Sizes of just-noticeable color differences, d, as a function of the v chromaticity coordinates of the sampling point – – × – –, before appearance transformation; — ○ —, after appearance transformation.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Sizes of just-noticeable color differences, d, as function of the u chromaticity coordinates of the sampling point – – × – –, before appearance transformation; — ○ —, after appearance transformation.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Appearance shifts of colors when adaptation was changed from dark (○) to daylight (×).

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Appearance shifts of colors when adaptation was changed from red (×) to daylight (○).

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Appearance shifts of colors when adaptation was changed from green (×) to daylight (○).

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Appearance shifts of colors when adaptation was changed from blue (×) to daylight (○).

Equations (3)

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( 0.963 0.016 0.026 - 0.040 1.037 0.022 0.078 - 0.053 0.951 ) .
( 0.901 0.084 0.059 0.038 0.981 0.043 0.061 - 0.065 0.898 ) .
red ( 0.781 0.155 0.085 0.121 0.889 0.043 0.098 - 0.044 0.873 ) , green ( 0.900 0.108 0.066 0.022 0.924 0.077 0.077 - 0.032 0.857 ) , blue ( 0.817 0.200 0.166 0.112 0.854 0.139 0.072 - 0.053 0.745 ) .