Abstract

The change of chromatic adaptation between observations made with a fluorescent lamp with correlated color temperature 6500 K and CIE standard source A was assessed by use of a subjective-estimation method. Thirteen observers were used. Individual variations and the average effects of chromatic adaptation were derived. The results were found to fall approximately in the middle of the range of results of previously reported studies. Lightness constancy was found, irrespective of the change of chromatic adaptation. The degree of color constancy of hue and of saturation is different for different Munsell hues, and discrimination of saturation becomes worse under source A than under the fluorescent lamp, approximately along the ν axis of the CIE 1960 (u, ν) diagram. The results are discussed with relation to several models for chromatic adaptation and color spacing.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. D. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) 115B, 49 (1934).
  2. G. T. Wassef, Opt. Acta 2, 144 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. W. Burnham, R. M. Evans, and S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 35 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 500 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color science-concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  6. H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221 (1952).
  7. I. G. H. Ishak, H. Bouma, and H. J. J. van Bussel, Vision Res. 10, 489 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Nayatani, T. Yamanaka, and H. Sobagaki, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 129 (1972).
  9. L. Mori, N. Kambe, and M. Hanayama, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 139 (1972).
  10. CIE Publication No. 13, Methods of measuring and specifying color rendering properties of light sources (Bureau Central, CIE, Paris, 1965).
  11. D. B. Judd, in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (Wiley, New York, 1951), p. 811.
  12. R. W. Burnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 254 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  13. W. L. Brewer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 207 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Terstiege, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, Soesterberg, 1972), p. 103.
  15. D. L. MacAdam, Vision Res. 1, 9 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

Y. Nayatani, T. Yamanaka, and H. Sobagaki, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 129 (1972).

L. Mori, N. Kambe, and M. Hanayama, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 139 (1972).

1970 (1)

I. G. H. Ishak, H. Bouma, and H. J. J. van Bussel, Vision Res. 10, 489 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

D. L. MacAdam, Vision Res. 1, 9 (1961).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

1957 (1)

1956 (2)

1955 (1)

G. T. Wassef, Opt. Acta 2, 144 (1955).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

1952 (1)

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221 (1952).

1934 (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) 115B, 49 (1934).

Bouma, H.

I. G. H. Ishak, H. Bouma, and H. J. J. van Bussel, Vision Res. 10, 489 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brewer, W. L.

Burnham, R. W.

Evans, R. M.

Hanayama, M.

L. Mori, N. Kambe, and M. Hanayama, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 139 (1972).

Helson, H.

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221 (1952).

Hurvich, L. M.

Ishak, I. G. H.

I. G. H. Ishak, H. Bouma, and H. J. J. van Bussel, Vision Res. 10, 489 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jameson, D.

Judd, D. B.

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221 (1952).

D. B. Judd, in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (Wiley, New York, 1951), p. 811.

Kambe, N.

L. Mori, N. Kambe, and M. Hanayama, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 139 (1972).

MacAdam, D. L.

Mori, L.

L. Mori, N. Kambe, and M. Hanayama, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 139 (1972).

Nayatani, Y.

Y. Nayatani, T. Yamanaka, and H. Sobagaki, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 129 (1972).

Newhall, S. M.

Sobagaki, H.

Y. Nayatani, T. Yamanaka, and H. Sobagaki, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 129 (1972).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color science-concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Terstiege, H.

H. Terstiege, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, Soesterberg, 1972), p. 103.

van Bussel, H. J. J.

I. G. H. Ishak, H. Bouma, and H. J. J. van Bussel, Vision Res. 10, 489 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warren, M. H.

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221 (1952).

Wassef, G. T.

G. T. Wassef, Opt. Acta 2, 144 (1955).
[Crossref]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) 115B, 49 (1934).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color science-concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Yamanaka, T.

Y. Nayatani, T. Yamanaka, and H. Sobagaki, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 129 (1972).

Acta Chromat. (2)

Y. Nayatani, T. Yamanaka, and H. Sobagaki, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 129 (1972).

L. Mori, N. Kambe, and M. Hanayama, Acta Chromat. 2(3), 139 (1972).

Illum. Eng. (1)

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221 (1952).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Opt. Acta (1)

G. T. Wassef, Opt. Acta 2, 144 (1955).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) (1)

W. D. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) 115B, 49 (1934).

Vision Res. (2)

D. L. MacAdam, Vision Res. 1, 9 (1961).
[Crossref]

I. G. H. Ishak, H. Bouma, and H. J. J. van Bussel, Vision Res. 10, 489 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

H. Terstiege, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, Soesterberg, 1972), p. 103.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color science-concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulas (Wiley, New York, 1967).

CIE Publication No. 13, Methods of measuring and specifying color rendering properties of light sources (Bureau Central, CIE, Paris, 1965).

D. B. Judd, in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (Wiley, New York, 1951), p. 811.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Histograms of Munsell Hue, Value, and Chroma for 95 surface colors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral power distribution of the fluorescent lamp used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Individual variations of chromatic-adaptation effects for 13 observers, shown on the CIE 1960 u, v diagram. Open circle corresponds to the chromaticity of the fluorescent lamp, which is u0 = 0.1989, v0 = 0.3128. Dots correspond to the chromaticities of the 8 test colors prescribed for the general color-rendering index under the fluorescent lamp. Open triangle corresponds to the average estimated corresponding chromaticity of an achromatic gray with a uniform spectral reflectance (ρλ) = 19.77% under source A, by use of the chromatic-adaptation equations. The tips of lines radiating from each dot indicate the corresponding chromaticities estimated for 13 observers, for the test sample, by use of the chromatic-adaptation equations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of various chromatic-adaptation equations. The central diagram shows the average chromatic-adaptation effects on the eight color-rendering-index test samples, derived in the present study. The upper-left diagram corresponds to the Helson–Judd–Warren equation, the lower left to the MacAdam equation, the upper right to the experiment by Wassef, and the lower right to the experiment by Burnham. See text for the notations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The values of (ŶDe(A) − YA) for various chromatic-adaptation equations for the eight test samples of the general color-rendering index. Dots correspond to the Helson–Judd–Warren equation, open circles to the MacAdam equation, open triangles to the Burnham equation, crosses to the Wassef equation, and filled triangles to that of the present study.

Tables (4)

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Table I Definitions of xν in Eqs. (3).

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Table II Transformation matrices T = (aij) in Eqs. (4) for each of the 13 observers.

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Table III Average transformation matrix T = (aij) derived from Table II.

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Table IV Chromaticity coordinates of three fundamental primaries for the 13 observers.

Equations (4)

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( R - G ) A i = S A i cos ( 2 π H A i 400 ) , ( Y - B ) A i = S A i sin ( 2 π H A i 400 ) , ( L ) A i = L A i ,
( R - G ) D i = S D i cos ( 2 π H D i 400 ) , ( Y - B ) D i = S D i sin ( 2 π H D i 400 ) , ( L ) D i = L D i .
X ˆ D i = b x 0 + ν = 1 19 b x ν x ν i , Ŷ D i = b y 0 + ν = 1 19 b y ν x ν i , Z ˆ D i = b z 0 + ν = 1 19 b z ν x ν i ,
[ X ˆ D e ( A ) Ŷ D e ( A ) Z ˆ D e ( A ) ] = [ a 11 a 12 a 13 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 ] · [ X A Y A Z A ] ,