Abstract

In the vacuum-ultraviolet region of the spectrum, the optical constants of vacuum-deposited absorbing films can be determined by measuring their specular reflectances at a number of angles of incidence. These reflectance values are then used to solve the generalized Fresnel reflection equations to obtain <i>n</i> and <i>k</i>. If the film is thin enough so that interference occurs between the wave fronts reflected from the film-vacuum and film-substrate interfaces, the errors in determining <i>n</i> and <i>k</i> may be large. Previously an opaque film, one that would transmit only 0.1% of the incident radiant flux at normal incidence if it were free-standing, was considered necessary if the <i>n, k</i> values of the film were to be determined with an accuracy of 1%. This paper presents the results of calculations demonstrating that the film thickness necessary to reduce the errors in <i>n</i> and <i>k</i> to 1% is dependent on <i>n</i> and <i>k</i> and is generally less than the opaque thickness.

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  1. R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 235 (1939).
  2. I. Simon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 336 (1951).
  3. W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1197 (1965).
  4. G. F. Jacobus, R. P. Madden, and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1084 (1963).
  5. J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).
  6. W. R. Hunter, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C.; (unpublished data).
  7. G. Hass, C. F. Jacobus, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758 (1967).
  8. S. Robin, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 236, 674 (1953).
  9. J. K. Coulter, G. Hass, and J. B. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1149 (1973).
  10. J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941), p. 281.
  11. J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).
  12. K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).
  13. W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 15 (1964).
  14. W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 154 (1964).
  15. U. S. Whang, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 305 (1973).

Arakawa, E. T.

U. S. Whang, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 305 (1973).

Bergmark, T.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Canfield, L. R.

G. F. Jacobus, R. P. Madden, and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1084 (1963).

Coulter, J. K.

J. K. Coulter, G. Hass, and J. B. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1149 (1973).

Cox, J. T.

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).

Fahlman, A.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Hamm, R. N.

U. S. Whang, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 305 (1973).

Hamrin, K.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Hass, G.

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).

J. K. Coulter, G. Hass, and J. B. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1149 (1973).

G. Hass, C. F. Jacobus, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758 (1967).

Hedman, J.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 15 (1964).

W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 154 (1964).

G. Hass, C. F. Jacobus, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758 (1967).

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).

W. R. Hunter, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C.; (unpublished data).

W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1197 (1965).

Jacobus, C. F.

G. Hass, C. F. Jacobus, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758 (1967).

Jacobus, G. F.

G. F. Jacobus, R. P. Madden, and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1084 (1963).

Johansson, G.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Karlsson, S-E.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Lindberg, B.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Lindgren, I.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Madden, R. P.

G. F. Jacobus, R. P. Madden, and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1084 (1963).

Nordberg, R.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Nordling, C.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Ramsey, J. B.

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).

J. K. Coulter, G. Hass, and J. B. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1149 (1973).

Robin, S.

S. Robin, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 236, 674 (1953).

Siegbahn, K.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Simon, I.

I. Simon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 336 (1951).

Stratton, J. A.

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941), p. 281.

Tousey, R.

R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 235 (1939).

Whang, U. S.

U. S. Whang, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 305 (1973).

Williams, M. W.

U. S. Whang, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 305 (1973).

Other (15)

R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 235 (1939).

I. Simon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 336 (1951).

W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1197 (1965).

G. F. Jacobus, R. P. Madden, and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1084 (1963).

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).

W. R. Hunter, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C.; (unpublished data).

G. Hass, C. F. Jacobus, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758 (1967).

S. Robin, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 236, 674 (1953).

J. K. Coulter, G. Hass, and J. B. Ramsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1149 (1973).

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941), p. 281.

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, and W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lindgren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist and Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 15 (1964).

W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 154 (1964).

U. S. Whang, R. N. Hamm, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 305 (1973).

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