Abstract

The reflectance and optical constants of evaporated ruthenium films were measured in the wavelength region from 300 to 2000 Å. The films were evaporated by electron bombardment in an ion-titanium-pumped vacuum system and were typically deposited at a rate of about 40 Å/s onto glass and super-polished fused-quartz substrates which were at 40 and 300 °C. Variation of deposition rate from 1 to 80 Å/s had very little effect on their reflectance. The optical constants were determined from reflectance measurements made at several angles of incidence. Reflectance losses during extended exposure to air were rather small, indicating that, if oxide films form at room temperature, they are very thin. Films made on substrates at 300°C had slightly higher reflectances than those made at 40°C. Owing to interference effects, semitransparent films 150 to 200 Å thick showed higher reflectances than opaque films at wavelengths in the region of 584 Å. At wavelengths near 2000 Å, films 300 Å thick had highest reflectances. Ruthenium films prepared under optimum conditions had reflectances of 26% at 584 Å.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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1974 (1)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1970 (2)

K. A. Kress and G. J. Lapeyre, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1681 (1970).
[Crossref]

V. V. Zashkvara, M. I. Korsunskii, and V. S. Red’kin, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 12, 1270 (1970) [Sov. Phys.–Solid State 12, 993 (1970)].

1969 (1)

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

1959 (1)

1951 (1)

1939 (1)

Bennett, J. M.

Bergmark, T.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Canfield, L. R.

Cox, J. T.

Dietz, R. W.

Fahlman, A.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Hamrin, K.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Hass, G.

Hedman, J.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Hunter, W. R.

Jacobus, G. F.

Johansson, G.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Karlsson, S-E.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Korsunskii, M. I.

V. V. Zashkvara, M. I. Korsunskii, and V. S. Red’kin, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 12, 1270 (1970) [Sov. Phys.–Solid State 12, 993 (1970)].

Kress, K. A.

Lapeyre, G. J.

Lindberg, B.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Lingren, I.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Madden, R. P.

Nordberg, R.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Nordling, C.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Ramsey, J. B.

Red’kin, V. S.

V. V. Zashkvara, M. I. Korsunskii, and V. S. Red’kin, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 12, 1270 (1970) [Sov. Phys.–Solid State 12, 993 (1970)].

Siegbahn, K.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

Simon, I.

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry of Films and Surfaces (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1948).

Tousey, R.

Zashkvara, V. V.

V. V. Zashkvara, M. I. Korsunskii, and V. S. Red’kin, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 12, 1270 (1970) [Sov. Phys.–Solid State 12, 993 (1970)].

Appl. Opt. (2)

Fiz. Tverd. Tela (1)

V. V. Zashkvara, M. I. Korsunskii, and V. S. Red’kin, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 12, 1270 (1970) [Sov. Phys.–Solid State 12, 993 (1970)].

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (11)

Other (3)

S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry of Films and Surfaces (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1948).

W. R. Hunter, in Proceedings of the Tenth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale (Spartan, Washington, D. C., 1963), p. 247.

K. Siegbahn, C. Nordling, A. Fahlman, R. Nordberg, K. Hamrin, J. Hedman, G. Johansson, T. Bergmark, S-E. Karlsson, I. Lingren, and B. Lindberg, ESCA: Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Structure studied by means of Electron Spectroscopy (Almquist & Wiksells, Uppsala, Sweden, 1967).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The transmittance of evaporated Ru films on glass at 5461 Å as a function of interferometrically determined film thickness for films deposited at 300°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ru film thickness required to reduce the transmittance at normal incidence through a free-standing film to 0.1%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated error in determination of n and k by the reflectance method as a function of film thickness for nonpolarized incident radiant flux. The solid lines show the errors calculated by use of the angles of incidence 10° through 80° inclusive. The dashed lines show the errors calculated by use of the angles of incidence 40° through 80° inclusive.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical constants and normal-incidence reflectance of evaporated Ru.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric constant, = 1 + i∊2 (solid lines), and the electronic loss function, 2nk/(n2 + k2)2 (dashed line), of evaporated Ru.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance of evaporated Ru films deposited on fused-quartz substrates held at 300°C during the deposition. The dashed curve is for a thickness of 170 Å and the solid curve is for a thickness of 450 Å.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Optical constants and normal-incidence reflectance of evaporated ruthenium films deposited at 300°C.

Tables Icon

Table II Reflectance of ruthenium films deposited on glass at 300 °C as a function of thickness and transmittance at 5461 Å for various wavelengths in the vacuum ultraviolet.