Abstract

The CIE tristimulus weighting functions have been applied to the colorimetric description of white surfaces. These functions, however, were derived from visual comparisons of high-purity colors, whereas white surfaces represent low-purity colors. No paper has dealt with the question of tristimulus weighting functions for low-purity white surfaces. The object of this paper is to discuss the boundaries between the white space and color space, to discuss the application of the tristimulus weighting functions to low-purity colors, and to show the correlation between visual appraisals of white with those derived from physical measurements.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Berger, Farbe 8, 187 (1959).
  2. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 44 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Stensby, Soap Chem. Spec. 43(4), 41 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(5), 84 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(7), 80 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(8), 94 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(9), 96 (1967).
  4. E. Ganz, J. Color and Appearance 1(5), 33 (1972).
  5. F. Grum and J. Patek, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 48, 357 (1965).
  6. P. Stensby, J. Color and Appearance 2(1), 39(1973).
  7. R. Hunter and W. Schramm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 881 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. D. Bock and L. V. Jones, Measurement and Prediction of Judgment and Choice (Holden–Day, New York, 1968), pp. 33–40.
  9. A. Berger, Farbe 8, 189 (1958).
  10. L. F. C. Friele, Farbe 8, 171 (1959).
  11. F. Grum and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 43, 400 (1960).
  12. F. Grum, S. Saunders, and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 53, 1264 (1970).
  13. G. Wyszecki, Farbe 19, 43 (1970).
  14. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 436, Table 5.8.
  15. K. F. Stultz (private communication).
  16. B. H. Crawford, Vision Res. 5, 71 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. L. MacAdam, Appl. Opt. 10, 1 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. ISCC Subcommittee for Problem 18, Report in preparation.
  19. A. Rauchle and W. Schramm, Textilveredlung 2, 719 (1967).

1973 (1)

P. Stensby, J. Color and Appearance 2(1), 39(1973).

1972 (1)

E. Ganz, J. Color and Appearance 1(5), 33 (1972).

1971 (1)

1970 (2)

F. Grum, S. Saunders, and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 53, 1264 (1970).

G. Wyszecki, Farbe 19, 43 (1970).

1969 (1)

1967 (2)

P. Stensby, Soap Chem. Spec. 43(4), 41 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(5), 84 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(7), 80 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(8), 94 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(9), 96 (1967).

A. Rauchle and W. Schramm, Textilveredlung 2, 719 (1967).

1965 (2)

B. H. Crawford, Vision Res. 5, 71 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Grum and J. Patek, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 48, 357 (1965).

1960 (2)

R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 44 (1960).
[CrossRef]

F. Grum and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 43, 400 (1960).

1959 (2)

A. Berger, Farbe 8, 187 (1959).

L. F. C. Friele, Farbe 8, 171 (1959).

1958 (1)

A. Berger, Farbe 8, 189 (1958).

Berger, A.

A. Berger, Farbe 8, 187 (1959).

A. Berger, Farbe 8, 189 (1958).

Bock, R. D.

R. D. Bock and L. V. Jones, Measurement and Prediction of Judgment and Choice (Holden–Day, New York, 1968), pp. 33–40.

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, Vision Res. 5, 71 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friele, L. F. C.

L. F. C. Friele, Farbe 8, 171 (1959).

Ganz, E.

E. Ganz, J. Color and Appearance 1(5), 33 (1972).

Grum, F.

F. Grum, S. Saunders, and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 53, 1264 (1970).

F. Grum and J. Patek, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 48, 357 (1965).

F. Grum and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 43, 400 (1960).

Hunter, R.

Jones, L. V.

R. D. Bock and L. V. Jones, Measurement and Prediction of Judgment and Choice (Holden–Day, New York, 1968), pp. 33–40.

MacAdam, D. L.

Patek, J.

F. Grum and J. Patek, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 48, 357 (1965).

Rauchle, A.

A. Rauchle and W. Schramm, Textilveredlung 2, 719 (1967).

Saunders, S.

F. Grum, S. Saunders, and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 53, 1264 (1970).

Schramm, W.

R. Hunter and W. Schramm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 881 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rauchle and W. Schramm, Textilveredlung 2, 719 (1967).

Stensby, P.

P. Stensby, J. Color and Appearance 2(1), 39(1973).

P. Stensby, Soap Chem. Spec. 43(4), 41 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(5), 84 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(7), 80 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(8), 94 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(9), 96 (1967).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 436, Table 5.8.

Stultz, K. F.

K. F. Stultz (private communication).

Wightman, T.

F. Grum, S. Saunders, and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 53, 1264 (1970).

F. Grum and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 43, 400 (1960).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, Farbe 19, 43 (1970).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 436, Table 5.8.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Farbe (4)

G. Wyszecki, Farbe 19, 43 (1970).

A. Berger, Farbe 8, 187 (1959).

A. Berger, Farbe 8, 189 (1958).

L. F. C. Friele, Farbe 8, 171 (1959).

J. Color and Appearance (2)

E. Ganz, J. Color and Appearance 1(5), 33 (1972).

P. Stensby, J. Color and Appearance 2(1), 39(1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. (3)

F. Grum and J. Patek, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 48, 357 (1965).

F. Grum and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 43, 400 (1960).

F. Grum, S. Saunders, and T. Wightman, J. Tech. Assn. Pulp Paper Ind. 53, 1264 (1970).

Soap Chem. Spec. (1)

P. Stensby, Soap Chem. Spec. 43(4), 41 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(5), 84 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(7), 80 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(8), 94 (1967); Soap Chem. Spec. 43(9), 96 (1967).

Textilveredlung (1)

A. Rauchle and W. Schramm, Textilveredlung 2, 719 (1967).

Vision Res. (1)

B. H. Crawford, Vision Res. 5, 71 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

ISCC Subcommittee for Problem 18, Report in preparation.

R. D. Bock and L. V. Jones, Measurement and Prediction of Judgment and Choice (Holden–Day, New York, 1968), pp. 33–40.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 436, Table 5.8.

K. F. Stultz (private communication).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three sets of color-mixture functions, — — —, 1931; ⋯, 1964; – – – –, modified by Judd.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geodesic chromaticity diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geodesic-chromaticity-diagram plots of 20 experimental samples (computed for D65-simulator fluorescent lamp).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation between the computed whiteness and the visual whiteness ranking (20 experimental samples; D65 fluorescent lamp).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geodesic coordinates plot for 33 samples (22 textile samples plus 11 ISCC paper samples) computed for D65 fluorescent lamp: ●, ISCC papers; ■, CG cloth; ▲, expt. samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Correlation between computed whiteness and visual estimates (ISCC paper samples). D65-simulator fluorescent lamp.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Correlation between computed whiteness and visual estimates (22 textile samples). D65-simulator fluorescent lamp.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Whiteness contours for two constant Z values.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Iso-whiteness contours for a constant ξ value.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table I Urban-treatment estimates of whiteness (in descending whiteness order) based on Thurstone–Mosteller pair-comparison experiment with ten judges.

Tables Icon

Table II Chromaticity data for the 20 experimental samples (D65-simulator fluorescent lamp, 10° observer).

Tables Icon

Table III Visual and computed whiteness values for 20 paper samples.

Tables Icon

Table IV Chromaticity data for 33 additional samples (D65-simulator fluorescent lamp, 10° observer).

Tables Icon

Table V Visual and computed whiteness (ISCC paper samples).

Tables Icon

Table VI Visual and computed whiteness values for 22 cloth samples.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W * = α 1 + β 1 Z
R * = α 2 + β 2 P .
W ** = ( α 1 + α 2 ) + ( β 1 Z - β 2 P ξ , η ) .
W ** = 270.1 + 3.80 Z - 3.647 P ξ , η .