Abstract

The temperature variations of several dielectric and optical parameters of KD2PO4 in the paraelectric phase above the Curie point are experimentally determined using an electron-beam-addressing technique. The results correlate well with the Curie–Weiss and electro-optical theories and the results of other researchers. The effects of these parameters on the performance of a KD2PO4 light valve are discussed and experimental image qualities are evaluated. The existence of domains in clamped plates and an unexplained hysteresis in the transition temperature are also reported.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. R. M. Hill and S. K. Ichiki, Phys. Rev. 130, 150 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  5. I. P. Kaminow and G. O. Harding, Phys. Rev. 129, 15 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Marie, Philips Res. Rep. 22, 110 (1967).
  7. D. Casasent, IEEE Trans. Comput. 22, 852 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Goetz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 63 (1970).
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  9. C. Salvo, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 748 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. J. Poppelbaum, in Pictorial Pattern Recognition, edited by G. C. Cheng and et al. (Thompson, New York, 1968), p. 387.
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    [Crossref]
  12. J. Ott and T. R. Sliker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1442 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Jona and G. Shirane, Ferroelectric Crystals (Macmillan, New York, 1962), Ch. III.
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    [Crossref]
  15. D. Casasent, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 20, 1109 (1973).
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    [Crossref]
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  20. W. Bantel, Helv. Phys. Acta 23, 373 (1942).
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    [Crossref]
  23. R. J. Mayer and J. L. Bjorkstam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 619 (1962).
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    [Crossref]
  27. R. A. Phillips, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 629 (1966).
    [Crossref]

1973 (4)

D. Casasent, IEEE Trans. Comput. 22, 852 (1973).
[Crossref]

D. Casasent and F. Caimi, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 10, 1102 (1973).
[Crossref]

D. Casasent, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 20, 1109 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. Marie and J. Donjon, Proc. IEEE 61, 942 (1973).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

C. Salvo, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 748 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

G. Goetz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 63 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

G. Marie, Philips Tech. Rev. 30, 292 (1969).

1967 (1)

G. Marie, Philips Res. Rep. 22, 110 (1967).

1966 (3)

1965 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, Phys. Rev. 138, A1539 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

1963 (3)

T. R. Sliker and S. R. Burlage, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1837 (1963).
[Crossref]

R. M. Hill and S. K. Ichiki, Phys. Rev. 130, 150 (1963).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kaminow and G. O. Harding, Phys. Rev. 129, 15 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

R. J. Mayer and J. L. Bjorkstam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 619 (1962).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

H. Baumgartner, Helv. Phys. Acta 24, 326 (1951).

1949 (1)

1946 (1)

W. P. Mason, Phys. Rev. 69, 1973 (1946).
[Crossref]

1944 (1)

B. Zwicker and P. Sherrer, Helv. Phys. Acta,  17, 346 (1944).

1942 (1)

W. Bantel, Helv. Phys. Acta 23, 373 (1942).

1938 (1)

G. Bush, Helv. Phys. Acta 11, 269 (1938).

Amazaki, N. Y.

Bantel, W.

W. Bantel, Helv. Phys. Acta 23, 373 (1942).

Baumgartner, H.

H. Baumgartner, Helv. Phys. Acta 24, 326 (1951).

Billings, B.

Bjorkstam, J. L.

R. J. Mayer and J. L. Bjorkstam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 619 (1962).
[Crossref]

Burlage, S. R.

T. R. Sliker and S. R. Burlage, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1837 (1963).
[Crossref]

Bush, G.

G. Bush, Helv. Phys. Acta 11, 269 (1938).

Caimi, F.

D. Casasent and F. Caimi, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 10, 1102 (1973).
[Crossref]

Casasent, D.

D. Casasent, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 20, 1109 (1973).
[Crossref]

D. Casasent and F. Caimi, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 10, 1102 (1973).
[Crossref]

D. Casasent, IEEE Trans. Comput. 22, 852 (1973).
[Crossref]

Donjon, J.

G. Marie and J. Donjon, Proc. IEEE 61, 942 (1973).
[Crossref]

Goetz, G.

G. Goetz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 63 (1970).
[Crossref]

Harding, G. O.

I. P. Kaminow and G. O. Harding, Phys. Rev. 129, 15 (1963).
[Crossref]

Hill, R. M.

R. M. Hill and S. K. Ichiki, Phys. Rev. 130, 150 (1963).
[Crossref]

Ichiki, S. K.

R. M. Hill and S. K. Ichiki, Phys. Rev. 130, 150 (1963).
[Crossref]

Jona, F.

F. Jona and G. Shirane, Ferroelectric Crystals (Macmillan, New York, 1962), Ch. III.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow and E. H. Turner, Proc. IEEE 54, 1374 (1966).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kaminow, Phys. Rev. 138, A1539 (1965).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kaminow and G. O. Harding, Phys. Rev. 129, 15 (1963).
[Crossref]

Kanzig, W.

W. Kanzig, Solid State Physics, Vol. 4, edited by F. Seitz and D. Turnbull (Academic, New York, 1957).
[Crossref]

Marie, G.

G. Marie and J. Donjon, Proc. IEEE 61, 942 (1973).
[Crossref]

G. Marie, Philips Tech. Rev. 30, 292 (1969).

G. Marie, Philips Res. Rep. 22, 110 (1967).

Mason, W. P.

W. P. Mason, Phys. Rev. 69, 1973 (1946).
[Crossref]

W. P. Mason, Piezoelectric Crystals and Their Applications to Ultrasonics (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N. J., 1964), Ch. VIII.

Mayer, R. J.

R. J. Mayer and J. L. Bjorkstam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 619 (1962).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, T.

Ott, J.

Phillips, R. A.

Poppelbaum, W. J.

W. J. Poppelbaum, in Pictorial Pattern Recognition, edited by G. C. Cheng and et al. (Thompson, New York, 1968), p. 387.

Salvo, C.

C. Salvo, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 748 (1971).
[Crossref]

Sherrer, P.

B. Zwicker and P. Sherrer, Helv. Phys. Acta,  17, 346 (1944).

Shirane, G.

F. Jona and G. Shirane, Ferroelectric Crystals (Macmillan, New York, 1962), Ch. III.

Sliker, T. R.

J. Ott and T. R. Sliker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1442 (1964).
[Crossref]

T. R. Sliker and S. R. Burlage, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1837 (1963).
[Crossref]

Turner, E. H.

I. P. Kaminow and E. H. Turner, Proc. IEEE 54, 1374 (1966).
[Crossref]

Zwicker, B.

B. Zwicker and P. Sherrer, Helv. Phys. Acta,  17, 346 (1944).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Goetz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 63 (1970).
[Crossref]

Helv. Phys. Acta (4)

B. Zwicker and P. Sherrer, Helv. Phys. Acta,  17, 346 (1944).

H. Baumgartner, Helv. Phys. Acta 24, 326 (1951).

W. Bantel, Helv. Phys. Acta 23, 373 (1942).

G. Bush, Helv. Phys. Acta 11, 269 (1938).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

D. Casasent, IEEE Trans. Comput. 22, 852 (1973).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

D. Casasent, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 20, 1109 (1973).
[Crossref]

C. Salvo, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 748 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. R. Sliker and S. R. Burlage, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1837 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

R. J. Mayer and J. L. Bjorkstam, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 619 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. (1)

D. Casasent and F. Caimi, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 10, 1102 (1973).
[Crossref]

Philips Res. Rep. (1)

G. Marie, Philips Res. Rep. 22, 110 (1967).

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

G. Marie, Philips Tech. Rev. 30, 292 (1969).

Phys. Rev. (4)

W. P. Mason, Phys. Rev. 69, 1973 (1946).
[Crossref]

R. M. Hill and S. K. Ichiki, Phys. Rev. 130, 150 (1963).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kaminow and G. O. Harding, Phys. Rev. 129, 15 (1963).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kaminow, Phys. Rev. 138, A1539 (1965).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (2)

I. P. Kaminow and E. H. Turner, Proc. IEEE 54, 1374 (1966).
[Crossref]

G. Marie and J. Donjon, Proc. IEEE 61, 942 (1973).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

F. Jona and G. Shirane, Ferroelectric Crystals (Macmillan, New York, 1962), Ch. III.

W. P. Mason, Piezoelectric Crystals and Their Applications to Ultrasonics (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N. J., 1964), Ch. VIII.

W. Kanzig, Solid State Physics, Vol. 4, edited by F. Seitz and D. Turnbull (Academic, New York, 1957).
[Crossref]

W. J. Poppelbaum, in Pictorial Pattern Recognition, edited by G. C. Cheng and et al. (Thompson, New York, 1968), p. 387.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the electron-beam-addressed KD2PO4 light valve. Code: 1, optical window; 2, write electron gun; 3, target crystal; 4, conducting layer and substrate; 5, erase electron gun.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Half-wave voltage versus temperature at λ = 633 nm for constant-strain KD2PO4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Constant-strain, longitudinal, dielectric constant versus temperature for KD2PO4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real-time KD2PO4 light-valve images. Left, room temperature. Right, transition temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photomicrograph of a portion of a real-time light-valve image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Target crystal at T0 with domains visible in the upper half of the crystal.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Curie constants in degrees Kelvin for constant-stress (superscript T) and constant-strain (superscript S) KH2PO4 and KD2PO4. (Reference numbers are indicated in parentheses.)

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 0 sin 2 ( π V / 2 V λ / 2 ) ,
V λ / 2 = λ / 2 n 1 3 r 63 S ,
r 63 T = A 0 ( 33 T 0 - 1 ) 3 ,
33 S 0 - 1 = λ 2 n 1 3 A 0 V λ / 2 .
33 T 0 = C T - T C ,
r 63 T = A 0 ( C T - T C - 1 ) ,
33 S 0 = C T - T 0 ,
d = d + 0.44 t ,
t = t ( 33 S / 11 ) - 1 2 ,
T 0 = ( 123 + 106 X ) K .
Δ T = C d 36 2 4 π ( K 33 T ) 2 S 66 P ,
S 66 P = S 66 E - 4 π d 36 2 / 33 T
[ n 1 ( T ) - n 1 ( 300 K ) ] × 10 4 = 85.2 - 6.95 × 10 - 2 T + 7.25 × 10 - 4 T 2 .