Abstract

By use of the haploscopic color-matching method, the colors induced by chromatic surrounds into an achromatic central field of a constant lower luminance (10 mL) have been measured. For inducing colors of constant chromaticity, an increasing luminance yielded induced colors of lower lightness but of constant chromaticity. For 21 dominant and complementary wavelengths of the inducing stimuli, the induced colors have been measured as functions of the purity of the surround. The results can be described within an opponent color metric by means of simple simultaneous power equations in the partial and resultant opponent purities, with wavelength-dependent exponents and constants, and one linear equation for the luminance ratio. For a unit change of purity of the inducing color, the exponents of the power functions represent a measure of the strength of induction. The values of the exponents and the constants have been tabulated and plotted against wavelength. By interpolation in these curves, it is possible to predict the equivalent color-matching coordinates of an induced color, for any combination of dominant wavelength and purity of the inducing color stimulus. A quantitative formulation of color induction that also incorporates the dependence on (a) the photopic light adaptation level, (b) the angular size of the annular inducing stimulus, and (c) the time of fixation of the test field, is suggested.

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  1. A. Valberg, thesis (University of Oslo, 1967); T. Holtsmark and A. Valberg, Nature 224, 366 (1969); and Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven, Proceedings of the 1971 AIC Symposium on Color Metrics (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, 1972), pp. 58–68.
  2. A. Valberg, Appl. Opt. 10, 8 (1971).
  3. A. Valberg, Vision Res. 11, 157 (1971).
  4. Wratten filters from Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. and Cinemoid from Strand Electric & Engineering Company, Ltd., London.
  5. Balzers Hochvakuumtechnik, Liechtenstein.
  6. D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) 42, 1 (1949); R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 929 (1960). B. Hassenstein, Kybernetik 4, 209 (1968).
  7. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).
  8. E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942).
  9. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955).
  10. K. Miescher, K.-D. Hofmann, P. Weisenhorn, and M. Früh Die Farbe 10, 115 (1961); K. Richter, Proceedings of the International Color Meeting "Color 69", Stockholm 1969 (Musterschmidt, Gottingen, 1969), pp. 403–417.
  11. Pm= 0.014 corresponds closely to a MacAdam ellipse of one JND from white in the (x,y) diagram; D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247 (1942).
  12. H. Terstiege, Die Farbe 16, 1 (1967).
  13. F. Heinrich, dissertation (Univ. München, 1967).
  14. I. Abramov, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/2; Physiology of Photoreceptor Organs (Springer, Berlin 1972), pp. 567–607.
  15. In a preliminary study of this subject reported in Proceedings International Color Meeting "Color 69", Stockholm 1969 (Musterschmidt, Göttingen, 1969), pp. 237–245, the luminance LRs was occasionally below 8 mL. Subsequently, I repeated the experiments with improved experimental conditions and nearly constant luminance LRS above 8 mL. All results presented in this paper refer to the later investigations.
  16. The change of saturation with adaptation luminance LRB is represented by pm =pm° (LRs/LRs°)-0.19, where LRS° is the luminance for which we obtain the purity pm°.
  17. H. Pretori and M. Sachs, Pflugers Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 71 (1895).
  18. J. A. S. Kinney, Vision Res. 2, 503 (1962); H. Helson and W. C. Michels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025 (1948).
  19. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, in Visual Problems of Colour (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1958), pp. 693–723; and Handbook of Sensory Physiology, VII/4, Visual Psychophysics (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 568–581.
  20. H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) 24, 293 (1940).
  21. In the cases I have studied, the time course of induction in the CIE x,y diagram followed the same loci as those obtained by changing the area of the inducing stimulus.
  22. T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, J. Neurophysiology 29, 1115 (1966).

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/2; Physiology of Photoreceptor Organs (Springer, Berlin 1972), pp. 567–607.

Adams, E. Q.

E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942).

Früh, M.

K. Miescher, K.-D. Hofmann, P. Weisenhorn, and M. Früh Die Farbe 10, 115 (1961); K. Richter, Proceedings of the International Color Meeting "Color 69", Stockholm 1969 (Musterschmidt, Gottingen, 1969), pp. 403–417.

Heinrich, F.

F. Heinrich, dissertation (Univ. München, 1967).

Helson, H.

H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) 24, 293 (1940).

Hofmann, K.-D.

K. Miescher, K.-D. Hofmann, P. Weisenhorn, and M. Früh Die Farbe 10, 115 (1961); K. Richter, Proceedings of the International Color Meeting "Color 69", Stockholm 1969 (Musterschmidt, Gottingen, 1969), pp. 403–417.

Hubel, D. H.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, J. Neurophysiology 29, 1115 (1966).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, in Visual Problems of Colour (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1958), pp. 693–723; and Handbook of Sensory Physiology, VII/4, Visual Psychophysics (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 568–581.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, in Visual Problems of Colour (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1958), pp. 693–723; and Handbook of Sensory Physiology, VII/4, Visual Psychophysics (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 568–581.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) 42, 1 (1949); R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 929 (1960). B. Hassenstein, Kybernetik 4, 209 (1968).

Kinney, J. A. S.

J. A. S. Kinney, Vision Res. 2, 503 (1962); H. Helson and W. C. Michels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025 (1948).

Miescher, K.

K. Miescher, K.-D. Hofmann, P. Weisenhorn, and M. Früh Die Farbe 10, 115 (1961); K. Richter, Proceedings of the International Color Meeting "Color 69", Stockholm 1969 (Musterschmidt, Gottingen, 1969), pp. 403–417.

Pretori, H.

H. Pretori and M. Sachs, Pflugers Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 71 (1895).

Sachs, M.

H. Pretori and M. Sachs, Pflugers Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 71 (1895).

Terstiege, H.

H. Terstiege, Die Farbe 16, 1 (1967).

Valberg, A.

A. Valberg, thesis (University of Oslo, 1967); T. Holtsmark and A. Valberg, Nature 224, 366 (1969); and Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven, Proceedings of the 1971 AIC Symposium on Color Metrics (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, 1972), pp. 58–68.

A. Valberg, Appl. Opt. 10, 8 (1971).

A. Valberg, Vision Res. 11, 157 (1971).

Weisenhorn, P.

K. Miescher, K.-D. Hofmann, P. Weisenhorn, and M. Früh Die Farbe 10, 115 (1961); K. Richter, Proceedings of the International Color Meeting "Color 69", Stockholm 1969 (Musterschmidt, Gottingen, 1969), pp. 403–417.

Wiesel, T. N.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, J. Neurophysiology 29, 1115 (1966).

Other (22)

A. Valberg, thesis (University of Oslo, 1967); T. Holtsmark and A. Valberg, Nature 224, 366 (1969); and Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven, Proceedings of the 1971 AIC Symposium on Color Metrics (AIC/Holland, c/o Institute for Perception TNO, 1972), pp. 58–68.

A. Valberg, Appl. Opt. 10, 8 (1971).

A. Valberg, Vision Res. 11, 157 (1971).

Wratten filters from Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. and Cinemoid from Strand Electric & Engineering Company, Ltd., London.

Balzers Hochvakuumtechnik, Liechtenstein.

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) 42, 1 (1949); R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 929 (1960). B. Hassenstein, Kybernetik 4, 209 (1968).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546 (1955).

E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955).

K. Miescher, K.-D. Hofmann, P. Weisenhorn, and M. Früh Die Farbe 10, 115 (1961); K. Richter, Proceedings of the International Color Meeting "Color 69", Stockholm 1969 (Musterschmidt, Gottingen, 1969), pp. 403–417.

Pm= 0.014 corresponds closely to a MacAdam ellipse of one JND from white in the (x,y) diagram; D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247 (1942).

H. Terstiege, Die Farbe 16, 1 (1967).

F. Heinrich, dissertation (Univ. München, 1967).

I. Abramov, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology VII/2; Physiology of Photoreceptor Organs (Springer, Berlin 1972), pp. 567–607.

In a preliminary study of this subject reported in Proceedings International Color Meeting "Color 69", Stockholm 1969 (Musterschmidt, Göttingen, 1969), pp. 237–245, the luminance LRs was occasionally below 8 mL. Subsequently, I repeated the experiments with improved experimental conditions and nearly constant luminance LRS above 8 mL. All results presented in this paper refer to the later investigations.

The change of saturation with adaptation luminance LRB is represented by pm =pm° (LRs/LRs°)-0.19, where LRS° is the luminance for which we obtain the purity pm°.

H. Pretori and M. Sachs, Pflugers Arch. ges. Physiol. 60, 71 (1895).

J. A. S. Kinney, Vision Res. 2, 503 (1962); H. Helson and W. C. Michels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025 (1948).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, in Visual Problems of Colour (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1958), pp. 693–723; and Handbook of Sensory Physiology, VII/4, Visual Psychophysics (Springer, Berlin, 1972), pp. 568–581.

H. Helson, J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439 (1938); D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stds. (U. S.) 24, 293 (1940).

In the cases I have studied, the time course of induction in the CIE x,y diagram followed the same loci as those obtained by changing the area of the inducing stimulus.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, J. Neurophysiology 29, 1115 (1966).

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