Abstract

At photopic luminance levels, the cone-cell variation of packing density across the retina provides a natural limit to the effective size of wide-field stimulus patterns. In some experiments, this eliminates the need for small test spots, which produce band-broadening effects in the spatial-frequency domain. Calculations of these effects are given, to aid in the design of such experiments.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. These rules can be found in almost any book on Fourier methods; e.g., R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965); A. Papoulis, The Fourier Integral and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962); or I. N. Sneddon, Fourier Transforms (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951). A brief summary is given by D. H. Kelly, Appl. Opt. 4, 435 (1965).
  2. M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Opt. Acta 1, 59 (1954).
  3. K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Vision Res. 8, 1145 (1968), found that rod-receptor potentials in cats and monkeys were suppressed by cone activity, probably via horizontal-cell pathways. Related human psychophysical results have now been reported (e.g., at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology meeting in Sarasota, Fla., 24–28 April 1972). See W. Makous and R. Boothe, Vision Res. 14, 285 (1974).
  4. G. Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. No. 6 (1935). Although limited to a single retina (and the techniques of 40 years ago), this painstaking study is still the standard reference for receptor-cell distributions.
  5. Among those of clinical importance are contrast sensitivity, flicker sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil response, visual acuity, local adaptation, spatial and temporal integration. See E. Aulhorn and H. Harms, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 142
  6. H. Davson, The Physiology of the Eye (Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1949).
  7. The author has been unable to find any previous calculation of this important frequency spectrum.
  8. The reader should also recall the well-known effects of ocular scattering, geometrical aberrations and diffraction, not discussed here. Scattering is essentially independent of spatial frequency; the other optical factors are readily evaluated from available data, e.g., F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. Lond. 186, 558 (1966). (With a sinusoidal grating, optical attenuation is negligible when ƒ0 is relatively low, as in determining receptive-field properties.)
  9. D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313 (1973); D. H. Kelly, J. Physiol. Lond. 228, 55 (1973),Vision Res. 12, 89 (1972), and J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983(1974).

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Opt. Acta 1, 59 (1954).

Aulhorn, E.

Among those of clinical importance are contrast sensitivity, flicker sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil response, visual acuity, local adaptation, spatial and temporal integration. See E. Aulhorn and H. Harms, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 142

Bracewell, R.

These rules can be found in almost any book on Fourier methods; e.g., R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965); A. Papoulis, The Fourier Integral and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962); or I. N. Sneddon, Fourier Transforms (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951). A brief summary is given by D. H. Kelly, Appl. Opt. 4, 435 (1965).

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Vision Res. 8, 1145 (1968), found that rod-receptor potentials in cats and monkeys were suppressed by cone activity, probably via horizontal-cell pathways. Related human psychophysical results have now been reported (e.g., at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology meeting in Sarasota, Fla., 24–28 April 1972). See W. Makous and R. Boothe, Vision Res. 14, 285 (1974).

Davson, H.

H. Davson, The Physiology of the Eye (Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1949).

Harms, H.

Among those of clinical importance are contrast sensitivity, flicker sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil response, visual acuity, local adaptation, spatial and temporal integration. See E. Aulhorn and H. Harms, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 142

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313 (1973); D. H. Kelly, J. Physiol. Lond. 228, 55 (1973),Vision Res. 12, 89 (1972), and J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983(1974).

Murakami, M.

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Vision Res. 8, 1145 (1968), found that rod-receptor potentials in cats and monkeys were suppressed by cone activity, probably via horizontal-cell pathways. Related human psychophysical results have now been reported (e.g., at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology meeting in Sarasota, Fla., 24–28 April 1972). See W. Makous and R. Boothe, Vision Res. 14, 285 (1974).

Østerberg, G.

G. Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. No. 6 (1935). Although limited to a single retina (and the techniques of 40 years ago), this painstaking study is still the standard reference for receptor-cell distributions.

Savoie, R. E.

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313 (1973); D. H. Kelly, J. Physiol. Lond. 228, 55 (1973),Vision Res. 12, 89 (1972), and J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983(1974).

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Opt. Acta 1, 59 (1954).

Other (9)

These rules can be found in almost any book on Fourier methods; e.g., R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965); A. Papoulis, The Fourier Integral and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962); or I. N. Sneddon, Fourier Transforms (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951). A brief summary is given by D. H. Kelly, Appl. Opt. 4, 435 (1965).

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Opt. Acta 1, 59 (1954).

K. T. Brown and M. Murakami, Vision Res. 8, 1145 (1968), found that rod-receptor potentials in cats and monkeys were suppressed by cone activity, probably via horizontal-cell pathways. Related human psychophysical results have now been reported (e.g., at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology meeting in Sarasota, Fla., 24–28 April 1972). See W. Makous and R. Boothe, Vision Res. 14, 285 (1974).

G. Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. No. 6 (1935). Although limited to a single retina (and the techniques of 40 years ago), this painstaking study is still the standard reference for receptor-cell distributions.

Among those of clinical importance are contrast sensitivity, flicker sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil response, visual acuity, local adaptation, spatial and temporal integration. See E. Aulhorn and H. Harms, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/4, Visual Psychophysics, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 142

H. Davson, The Physiology of the Eye (Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1949).

The author has been unable to find any previous calculation of this important frequency spectrum.

The reader should also recall the well-known effects of ocular scattering, geometrical aberrations and diffraction, not discussed here. Scattering is essentially independent of spatial frequency; the other optical factors are readily evaluated from available data, e.g., F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. Lond. 186, 558 (1966). (With a sinusoidal grating, optical attenuation is negligible when ƒ0 is relatively low, as in determining receptive-field properties.)

D. H. Kelly and R. E. Savoie, Percept. Psychophys. 14, 313 (1973); D. H. Kelly, J. Physiol. Lond. 228, 55 (1973),Vision Res. 12, 89 (1972), and J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983(1974).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.