Abstract

By use of a blur-pseudostimulus technique and high-speed infrared optometric measurements, the singularity of blur as a stimulus to human accommodation was studied. Blur is not the sole stimulus; it is a necessary cue, but not a sufficient one. The accommodative system makes use of one or more available odd-error (error sign) cues, which are believed to supplement blur with requisite focusing information.

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  1. E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).
  2. E. F. Fincham, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 49, 456 (1937).
  3. L. Stark and Y. Takahashi, IEEE Trans. Bio.-Med. Eng. BME-12, 138 (1965).
  4. N. Roth, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1636 (1965).
  5. An even-error signal provides magnitude but no sign information about focusing errors. An odd-error signal does provide sign information.
  6. By the average absolute value of the response, we mean [∑1n |Rj(t)-R(0-)|]/n not [|Σ1nRj(t)| ]/n, where the Rj are the individual lens responses.
  7. K. Fujii, K. Kondo, and T. Kasai, Tech. Rep. Osaka Univ. 20, 925 (1970).
  8. W. D. O'Neill, C. K. Sanathanan, and J. S. Brodkey, IEEE Trans. Systems Science and Cybernetics SSC-5, 290 (1968).
  9. K. N. Ogle and J. R. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 273 (1959).
  10. Individual variability in both need and efficacy of odd-error cues has been widely reported [E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951); Merrill J. Allen, Am. J. Opt. 32, 422 (1955); A. Troelstra, B. L. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, Vision Res. 4, 27 (1964); F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959)3.
  11. F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959).
  12. T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, NASA Report No. CR-2007 (1972).
  13. A. Troelstra, B. L. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, Vision Res. 4, 27 (1964).

Brodkey, J. S.

W. D. O'Neill, C. K. Sanathanan, and J. S. Brodkey, IEEE Trans. Systems Science and Cybernetics SSC-5, 290 (1968).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959).

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, NASA Report No. CR-2007 (1972).

Crane, H. D.

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, NASA Report No. CR-2007 (1972).

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).

E. F. Fincham, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 49, 456 (1937).

Fujii, K.

K. Fujii, K. Kondo, and T. Kasai, Tech. Rep. Osaka Univ. 20, 925 (1970).

Kasai, T.

K. Fujii, K. Kondo, and T. Kasai, Tech. Rep. Osaka Univ. 20, 925 (1970).

Kondo, K.

K. Fujii, K. Kondo, and T. Kasai, Tech. Rep. Osaka Univ. 20, 925 (1970).

Miller, D.

A. Troelstra, B. L. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, Vision Res. 4, 27 (1964).

O’Neill, W. D.

W. D. O'Neill, C. K. Sanathanan, and J. S. Brodkey, IEEE Trans. Systems Science and Cybernetics SSC-5, 290 (1968).

Ogle, K. N.

K. N. Ogle and J. R. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 273 (1959).

Roth, N.

N. Roth, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1636 (1965).

Sanathanan, C. K.

W. D. O'Neill, C. K. Sanathanan, and J. S. Brodkey, IEEE Trans. Systems Science and Cybernetics SSC-5, 290 (1968).

Schwartz, J. R.

K. N. Ogle and J. R. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 273 (1959).

Stark, L.

L. Stark and Y. Takahashi, IEEE Trans. Bio.-Med. Eng. BME-12, 138 (1965).

A. Troelstra, B. L. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, Vision Res. 4, 27 (1964).

Takahashi, Y.

L. Stark and Y. Takahashi, IEEE Trans. Bio.-Med. Eng. BME-12, 138 (1965).

Troelstra, A.

A. Troelstra, B. L. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, Vision Res. 4, 27 (1964).

Westheimer, G.

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959).

Zuber, B. L.

A. Troelstra, B. L. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, Vision Res. 4, 27 (1964).

Other

E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951).

E. F. Fincham, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 49, 456 (1937).

L. Stark and Y. Takahashi, IEEE Trans. Bio.-Med. Eng. BME-12, 138 (1965).

N. Roth, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1636 (1965).

An even-error signal provides magnitude but no sign information about focusing errors. An odd-error signal does provide sign information.

By the average absolute value of the response, we mean [∑1n |Rj(t)-R(0-)|]/n not [|Σ1nRj(t)| ]/n, where the Rj are the individual lens responses.

K. Fujii, K. Kondo, and T. Kasai, Tech. Rep. Osaka Univ. 20, 925 (1970).

W. D. O'Neill, C. K. Sanathanan, and J. S. Brodkey, IEEE Trans. Systems Science and Cybernetics SSC-5, 290 (1968).

K. N. Ogle and J. R. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 273 (1959).

Individual variability in both need and efficacy of odd-error cues has been widely reported [E. F. Fincham, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381 (1951); Merrill J. Allen, Am. J. Opt. 32, 422 (1955); A. Troelstra, B. L. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, Vision Res. 4, 27 (1964); F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959)3.

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959).

T. N. Cornsweet and H. D. Crane, NASA Report No. CR-2007 (1972).

A. Troelstra, B. L. Zuber, D. Miller, and L. Stark, Vision Res. 4, 27 (1964).

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