Abstract

Optical constants in the spectral range 1.5–5.5 eV are presented for the heavy rare-earth metals Gd, Tb, and Dy. The samples are thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation at pressures below 10−9 torr, and are studied in situ using a precision ellipsometric technique. The optical spectra are broadly similar but differ slightly in their temperature dependence. The optical data complement recent magneto-optic spectra, and the significance of their difference is discussed in terms of existing electronic-structure models and the microscopic origin of the two spectra.

© 1974 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Magnetic Properties of Rare Earths Metals, edited by R. J. Elliott (Plenum, New York, 1972).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. F. Herbst, D. N. Lowy, and R. E. Watson, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1913 (1972). (All rare earths.) J. O. Dimmock, A. J. Freeman, and R. E. Watson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 237. (Gd.) S. C. Keeton and T. L. Loucks, Phys. Rev. 168, 672 (1968). (Gd, Dy.) C. Jackson, Phys. Rev. 178, 949 (1969). (Tb.)
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Cr. Schüler, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 221; J. N. Hodgson and V. Cleyet, J. Phys. C 2, 97 (1969); Yu. V. Knyazev, Fiz. Met. Metall. 30, 214 (1970); Fiz. Met. Metall. 31, 1099 (1971); Fiz. Met. Metall. 32, 1189 (1971); J. P. Petrakian, Thin Solid Films 13, 269 (1972); C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) B 270, 624 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. R. McFeely, S. P. Kowalczyk, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Lett. 45A, 3, (1973); P. O. Heden, H. Lofgren, S. B. M. Hagstrom, and C. Norris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1173 (1970); D. E. Eastman, Solid State Commun. 7, 1967 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Busch, M. Campagna, P. Cotti, and H. Ch. Siegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 597 (1969); G. Chrobok, M. Hofmann, and G. Regenfus, Phys. Lett. 26A, 551 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. M. Tedrow and R. Meservey, Phys. Rev. B 7, 318 (1973); Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 192 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. L. Erskine and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. B 8, 1239 (1973)
    [Crossref]
  8. B. D. Cahn and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. J. Flaten, Ph.D. thesis (University of Washington, 1969).
  10. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  11. Private communication; also see Ref. 3.
  12. E. A. Stern and J. L. Erskine, Proc. of the International Conf. on Magnetism, Moscow, Aug. 22–28 (1973).
  13. Schüler (Ref. 3) lists the allowed transitions; also see J. F. Cornwell, Group Theory and Electronic Energy Bands in Solids (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1969).
  14. B. N. Harmon and A. J. Freeman, AIP Conf. Proc. (U.S.A.),  No. 10, Pt. 2, p. 1309 (1972); also B. N. Harmon (private communication).

1973 (3)

F. R. McFeely, S. P. Kowalczyk, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Lett. 45A, 3, (1973); P. O. Heden, H. Lofgren, S. B. M. Hagstrom, and C. Norris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1173 (1970); D. E. Eastman, Solid State Commun. 7, 1967 (1969).
[Crossref]

P. M. Tedrow and R. Meservey, Phys. Rev. B 7, 318 (1973); Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 192 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. L. Erskine and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. B 8, 1239 (1973)
[Crossref]

1972 (3)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

B. N. Harmon and A. J. Freeman, AIP Conf. Proc. (U.S.A.),  No. 10, Pt. 2, p. 1309 (1972); also B. N. Harmon (private communication).

J. F. Herbst, D. N. Lowy, and R. E. Watson, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1913 (1972). (All rare earths.) J. O. Dimmock, A. J. Freeman, and R. E. Watson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 237. (Gd.) S. C. Keeton and T. L. Loucks, Phys. Rev. 168, 672 (1968). (Gd, Dy.) C. Jackson, Phys. Rev. 178, 949 (1969). (Tb.)
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

B. D. Cahn and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969).
[Crossref]

G. Busch, M. Campagna, P. Cotti, and H. Ch. Siegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 597 (1969); G. Chrobok, M. Hofmann, and G. Regenfus, Phys. Lett. 26A, 551 (1968).
[Crossref]

Busch, G.

G. Busch, M. Campagna, P. Cotti, and H. Ch. Siegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 597 (1969); G. Chrobok, M. Hofmann, and G. Regenfus, Phys. Lett. 26A, 551 (1968).
[Crossref]

Cahn, B. D.

B. D. Cahn and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969).
[Crossref]

Campagna, M.

G. Busch, M. Campagna, P. Cotti, and H. Ch. Siegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 597 (1969); G. Chrobok, M. Hofmann, and G. Regenfus, Phys. Lett. 26A, 551 (1968).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cornwell, J. F.

Schüler (Ref. 3) lists the allowed transitions; also see J. F. Cornwell, Group Theory and Electronic Energy Bands in Solids (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1969).

Cotti, P.

G. Busch, M. Campagna, P. Cotti, and H. Ch. Siegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 597 (1969); G. Chrobok, M. Hofmann, and G. Regenfus, Phys. Lett. 26A, 551 (1968).
[Crossref]

Erskine, J. L.

J. L. Erskine and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. B 8, 1239 (1973)
[Crossref]

E. A. Stern and J. L. Erskine, Proc. of the International Conf. on Magnetism, Moscow, Aug. 22–28 (1973).

Flaten, C. J.

C. J. Flaten, Ph.D. thesis (University of Washington, 1969).

Freeman, A. J.

B. N. Harmon and A. J. Freeman, AIP Conf. Proc. (U.S.A.),  No. 10, Pt. 2, p. 1309 (1972); also B. N. Harmon (private communication).

Harmon, B. N.

B. N. Harmon and A. J. Freeman, AIP Conf. Proc. (U.S.A.),  No. 10, Pt. 2, p. 1309 (1972); also B. N. Harmon (private communication).

Herbst, J. F.

J. F. Herbst, D. N. Lowy, and R. E. Watson, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1913 (1972). (All rare earths.) J. O. Dimmock, A. J. Freeman, and R. E. Watson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 237. (Gd.) S. C. Keeton and T. L. Loucks, Phys. Rev. 168, 672 (1968). (Gd, Dy.) C. Jackson, Phys. Rev. 178, 949 (1969). (Tb.)
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kowalczyk, S. P.

F. R. McFeely, S. P. Kowalczyk, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Lett. 45A, 3, (1973); P. O. Heden, H. Lofgren, S. B. M. Hagstrom, and C. Norris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1173 (1970); D. E. Eastman, Solid State Commun. 7, 1967 (1969).
[Crossref]

Lowy, D. N.

J. F. Herbst, D. N. Lowy, and R. E. Watson, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1913 (1972). (All rare earths.) J. O. Dimmock, A. J. Freeman, and R. E. Watson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 237. (Gd.) S. C. Keeton and T. L. Loucks, Phys. Rev. 168, 672 (1968). (Gd, Dy.) C. Jackson, Phys. Rev. 178, 949 (1969). (Tb.)
[Crossref]

McFeely, F. R.

F. R. McFeely, S. P. Kowalczyk, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Lett. 45A, 3, (1973); P. O. Heden, H. Lofgren, S. B. M. Hagstrom, and C. Norris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1173 (1970); D. E. Eastman, Solid State Commun. 7, 1967 (1969).
[Crossref]

Meservey, R.

P. M. Tedrow and R. Meservey, Phys. Rev. B 7, 318 (1973); Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 192 (1971).
[Crossref]

Schüler, C. Cr.

C. Cr. Schüler, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 221; J. N. Hodgson and V. Cleyet, J. Phys. C 2, 97 (1969); Yu. V. Knyazev, Fiz. Met. Metall. 30, 214 (1970); Fiz. Met. Metall. 31, 1099 (1971); Fiz. Met. Metall. 32, 1189 (1971); J. P. Petrakian, Thin Solid Films 13, 269 (1972); C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) B 270, 624 (1970).
[Crossref]

Shirley, D. A.

F. R. McFeely, S. P. Kowalczyk, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Lett. 45A, 3, (1973); P. O. Heden, H. Lofgren, S. B. M. Hagstrom, and C. Norris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1173 (1970); D. E. Eastman, Solid State Commun. 7, 1967 (1969).
[Crossref]

Siegmann, H. Ch.

G. Busch, M. Campagna, P. Cotti, and H. Ch. Siegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 597 (1969); G. Chrobok, M. Hofmann, and G. Regenfus, Phys. Lett. 26A, 551 (1968).
[Crossref]

Spanier, R. F.

B. D. Cahn and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969).
[Crossref]

Stern, E. A.

J. L. Erskine and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. B 8, 1239 (1973)
[Crossref]

E. A. Stern and J. L. Erskine, Proc. of the International Conf. on Magnetism, Moscow, Aug. 22–28 (1973).

Tedrow, P. M.

P. M. Tedrow and R. Meservey, Phys. Rev. B 7, 318 (1973); Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 192 (1971).
[Crossref]

Watson, R. E.

J. F. Herbst, D. N. Lowy, and R. E. Watson, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1913 (1972). (All rare earths.) J. O. Dimmock, A. J. Freeman, and R. E. Watson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 237. (Gd.) S. C. Keeton and T. L. Loucks, Phys. Rev. 168, 672 (1968). (Gd, Dy.) C. Jackson, Phys. Rev. 178, 949 (1969). (Tb.)
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (U.S.A.) (1)

B. N. Harmon and A. J. Freeman, AIP Conf. Proc. (U.S.A.),  No. 10, Pt. 2, p. 1309 (1972); also B. N. Harmon (private communication).

Phys. Lett. (1)

F. R. McFeely, S. P. Kowalczyk, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Lett. 45A, 3, (1973); P. O. Heden, H. Lofgren, S. B. M. Hagstrom, and C. Norris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1173 (1970); D. E. Eastman, Solid State Commun. 7, 1967 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

J. F. Herbst, D. N. Lowy, and R. E. Watson, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1913 (1972). (All rare earths.) J. O. Dimmock, A. J. Freeman, and R. E. Watson, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 237. (Gd.) S. C. Keeton and T. L. Loucks, Phys. Rev. 168, 672 (1968). (Gd, Dy.) C. Jackson, Phys. Rev. 178, 949 (1969). (Tb.)
[Crossref]

P. M. Tedrow and R. Meservey, Phys. Rev. B 7, 318 (1973); Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 192 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. L. Erskine and E. A. Stern, Phys. Rev. B 8, 1239 (1973)
[Crossref]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Busch, M. Campagna, P. Cotti, and H. Ch. Siegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 597 (1969); G. Chrobok, M. Hofmann, and G. Regenfus, Phys. Lett. 26A, 551 (1968).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. (1)

B. D. Cahn and R. F. Spanier, Surf. Sci. 16, 166 (1969).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

C. J. Flaten, Ph.D. thesis (University of Washington, 1969).

C. Cr. Schüler, in Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Metals and Alloys, edited by F. Abelès (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 221; J. N. Hodgson and V. Cleyet, J. Phys. C 2, 97 (1969); Yu. V. Knyazev, Fiz. Met. Metall. 30, 214 (1970); Fiz. Met. Metall. 31, 1099 (1971); Fiz. Met. Metall. 32, 1189 (1971); J. P. Petrakian, Thin Solid Films 13, 269 (1972); C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) B 270, 624 (1970).
[Crossref]

Private communication; also see Ref. 3.

E. A. Stern and J. L. Erskine, Proc. of the International Conf. on Magnetism, Moscow, Aug. 22–28 (1973).

Schüler (Ref. 3) lists the allowed transitions; also see J. F. Cornwell, Group Theory and Electronic Energy Bands in Solids (North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1969).

Magnetic Properties of Rare Earths Metals, edited by R. J. Elliott (Plenum, New York, 1972).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical conductivity of Gd at room temperature after several authors (Ref. 2): 1—Petrakian, 2—Hodgson and Cleyet, 3—present work, 4—Schüler, 5—Knyazev.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical conductivity of Gd at temperatures above and below the Curve point, +80 K, ○ 300 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical conductivity of Dy at temperatures above and below the Curie point, +80 K, ○ 300 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical conductivity of Tb at temperatures above and below the Curie point, +80 K, ○ 300 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Magneto-optical conductivity [ωσxy(2)(ω)] of Gd (○) and Dy (+) normalized to saturated moment magnetization (T=0). (Ref. 7.)

Equations (3)

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σ ˜ ( ω ) = σ i i ( ω ) = σ i i ( 1 ) ( ω ) + i σ i i ( 2 ) ( ω ) ,
σ ˜ i j = i ω 4 π ( ˜ i j - δ i j ) .
σ 1 = ( ω / 2 π ) X ( 1 - X ) 1 2 cos 2 θ m sin 2 θ i × tan 2 θ i ( 1 + X sin 2 θ m ) - 2 , σ 2 = ( ω / 4 π ) { 1 - sin 2 θ i - sin 2 θ i tan 2 θ i × [ X 2 ( cos 2 2 θ m + 1 ) - 1 ] [ 1 + X sin 2 θ m ] - 2 } ,