Abstract

The Raman-active phonons (3A1g + 8Eg + 14T2g) in eight different aluminum, gallium, and iron garnet crystals have been investigated. The energies and symmetries of phonons in YbAlG, YbGaG, LuAlG, and LuGaG, as well as DyIG, ErIg, YbIG, and YIG, have been determined. The aluminum and gallium garnets were measured in transmission, by use of an argon laser (5145 and 4880 Å). The iron garnets were measured both in reflection, using an argon laser, and in transmission, using a Nd:YAG laser (1.064 μm). Owing to the linear magnetic birefringence of the iron garnets, the identification of phonon symmetries through polarization selection rules was not possible for our transmission data. An external magnetic field sufficient to align the magnetic domains of the iron garnets in the (110) plane at 80 K was applied both for the reflection and transmission measurements.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Bertaut and F. Forrat, CR Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242, 382 (1956).
  2. G. Menzer, Z. Kristallogr. 69, 300 (1928).
  3. J. P. Hurrell, S. P. S. Porto, I. F. Chang, S. S. Mitra, and R. P. Bauman, Phys. Rev. 173, 851 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Mace, G. Schaack, Toaning-Ng, and J. A. Koningstein, Z. Phys. 230, 391 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. L. Wadsack, Joan L. Lewis, B. E. Argyle, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 3, 4342 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. A. Koningstein and O. Sonnich Mortensen, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 27, 343 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. A. Koningstein, Appl. Spectrosc. 22, 438 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. A. Koningstein and Toaning-Ng, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1462 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Grünberg, J. A. Koningstein, and L. G. Van Uitert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1613 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. J. Elliott and R. Loudon, Phys. Lett. 3, 189 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. B. Harris, Phys. Rev. 132, 2398 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. A. Koningstein, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2811 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Loudon, Adv. Phys. 13, 423 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. A. Fleury and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 166, 514 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  15. Dana’s Manual of Mineralogy15th ed., revised by C. S. Hurlbut (Wiley, New York, 1941), p. 25.
  16. W. A. Crossley, R. W. Cooper, J. L. Page, and R. P. van Stapele, Phys. Rev. 181, 896 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. F. Dillon, J. P. Remeika, and C. R. Staton, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1510 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. E. Argyle, R. L. Wadsack, and R. K. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1478 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. Bertaut and R. Pauthenet, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. B 104, 261 (1957).
  20. J. F. Dillon, J. Phys. Radium 20, 374 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Chaves and S. P. S. Porto, Solid State Commun. 10, 1075 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3788 (1973).
    [Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3788 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

A. Chaves and S. P. S. Porto, Solid State Commun. 10, 1075 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (3)

R. L. Wadsack, Joan L. Lewis, B. E. Argyle, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 3, 4342 (1971).
[Crossref]

P. Grünberg, J. A. Koningstein, and L. G. Van Uitert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1613 (1971).
[Crossref]

B. E. Argyle, R. L. Wadsack, and R. K. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1478 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

G. Mace, G. Schaack, Toaning-Ng, and J. A. Koningstein, Z. Phys. 230, 391 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

W. A. Crossley, R. W. Cooper, J. L. Page, and R. P. van Stapele, Phys. Rev. 181, 896 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. F. Dillon, J. P. Remeika, and C. R. Staton, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1510 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (5)

J. P. Hurrell, S. P. S. Porto, I. F. Chang, S. S. Mitra, and R. P. Bauman, Phys. Rev. 173, 851 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein and O. Sonnich Mortensen, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 27, 343 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein, Appl. Spectrosc. 22, 438 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein and Toaning-Ng, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1462 (1968).
[Crossref]

P. A. Fleury and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 166, 514 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

J. A. Koningstein, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2811 (1967).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Loudon, Adv. Phys. 13, 423 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (2)

R. J. Elliott and R. Loudon, Phys. Lett. 3, 189 (1963).
[Crossref]

A. B. Harris, Phys. Rev. 132, 2398 (1963).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

J. F. Dillon, J. Phys. Radium 20, 374 (1959).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

F. Bertaut and R. Pauthenet, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. B 104, 261 (1957).

1956 (1)

F. Bertaut and F. Forrat, CR Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242, 382 (1956).

1928 (1)

G. Menzer, Z. Kristallogr. 69, 300 (1928).

Argyle, B. E.

R. L. Wadsack, Joan L. Lewis, B. E. Argyle, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 3, 4342 (1971).
[Crossref]

B. E. Argyle, R. L. Wadsack, and R. K. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1478 (1971).
[Crossref]

Bauman, R. P.

J. P. Hurrell, S. P. S. Porto, I. F. Chang, S. S. Mitra, and R. P. Bauman, Phys. Rev. 173, 851 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bertaut, F.

F. Bertaut and R. Pauthenet, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. B 104, 261 (1957).

F. Bertaut and F. Forrat, CR Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242, 382 (1956).

Callender, R. H.

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3788 (1973).
[Crossref]

Chang, I. F.

J. P. Hurrell, S. P. S. Porto, I. F. Chang, S. S. Mitra, and R. P. Bauman, Phys. Rev. 173, 851 (1968).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. K.

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3788 (1973).
[Crossref]

B. E. Argyle, R. L. Wadsack, and R. K. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1478 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. L. Wadsack, Joan L. Lewis, B. E. Argyle, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 3, 4342 (1971).
[Crossref]

Chaves, A.

A. Chaves and S. P. S. Porto, Solid State Commun. 10, 1075 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cooper, R. W.

W. A. Crossley, R. W. Cooper, J. L. Page, and R. P. van Stapele, Phys. Rev. 181, 896 (1969).
[Crossref]

Crossley, W. A.

W. A. Crossley, R. W. Cooper, J. L. Page, and R. P. van Stapele, Phys. Rev. 181, 896 (1969).
[Crossref]

Dillon, J. F.

J. F. Dillon, J. P. Remeika, and C. R. Staton, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1510 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. F. Dillon, J. Phys. Radium 20, 374 (1959).
[Crossref]

Elliott, R. J.

R. J. Elliott and R. Loudon, Phys. Lett. 3, 189 (1963).
[Crossref]

Fleury, P. A.

P. A. Fleury and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 166, 514 (1968).
[Crossref]

Forrat, F.

F. Bertaut and F. Forrat, CR Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242, 382 (1956).

Grünberg, P.

Harris, A. B.

A. B. Harris, Phys. Rev. 132, 2398 (1963).
[Crossref]

Hurlbut, C. S.

Dana’s Manual of Mineralogy15th ed., revised by C. S. Hurlbut (Wiley, New York, 1941), p. 25.

Hurrell, J. P.

J. P. Hurrell, S. P. S. Porto, I. F. Chang, S. S. Mitra, and R. P. Bauman, Phys. Rev. 173, 851 (1968).
[Crossref]

Koningstein, J. A.

P. Grünberg, J. A. Koningstein, and L. G. Van Uitert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1613 (1971).
[Crossref]

G. Mace, G. Schaack, Toaning-Ng, and J. A. Koningstein, Z. Phys. 230, 391 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein and O. Sonnich Mortensen, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 27, 343 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein, Appl. Spectrosc. 22, 438 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein and Toaning-Ng, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1462 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2811 (1967).
[Crossref]

Lewis, Joan L.

R. L. Wadsack, Joan L. Lewis, B. E. Argyle, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 3, 4342 (1971).
[Crossref]

Loudon, R.

P. A. Fleury and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 166, 514 (1968).
[Crossref]

R. Loudon, Adv. Phys. 13, 423 (1964).
[Crossref]

R. J. Elliott and R. Loudon, Phys. Lett. 3, 189 (1963).
[Crossref]

Mace, G.

G. Mace, G. Schaack, Toaning-Ng, and J. A. Koningstein, Z. Phys. 230, 391 (1970).
[Crossref]

Menzer, G.

G. Menzer, Z. Kristallogr. 69, 300 (1928).

Mitra, S. S.

J. P. Hurrell, S. P. S. Porto, I. F. Chang, S. S. Mitra, and R. P. Bauman, Phys. Rev. 173, 851 (1968).
[Crossref]

Page, J. L.

W. A. Crossley, R. W. Cooper, J. L. Page, and R. P. van Stapele, Phys. Rev. 181, 896 (1969).
[Crossref]

Pauthenet, R.

F. Bertaut and R. Pauthenet, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. B 104, 261 (1957).

Porto, S. P. S.

A. Chaves and S. P. S. Porto, Solid State Commun. 10, 1075 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. P. Hurrell, S. P. S. Porto, I. F. Chang, S. S. Mitra, and R. P. Bauman, Phys. Rev. 173, 851 (1968).
[Crossref]

Remeika, J. P.

J. F. Dillon, J. P. Remeika, and C. R. Staton, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1510 (1969).
[Crossref]

Schaack, G.

G. Mace, G. Schaack, Toaning-Ng, and J. A. Koningstein, Z. Phys. 230, 391 (1970).
[Crossref]

Selders, M.

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3788 (1973).
[Crossref]

Sonnich Mortensen, O.

J. A. Koningstein and O. Sonnich Mortensen, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 27, 343 (1968).
[Crossref]

Staton, C. R.

J. F. Dillon, J. P. Remeika, and C. R. Staton, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1510 (1969).
[Crossref]

Sussman, S. S.

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3788 (1973).
[Crossref]

Toaning-Ng,

G. Mace, G. Schaack, Toaning-Ng, and J. A. Koningstein, Z. Phys. 230, 391 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. A. Koningstein and Toaning-Ng, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1462 (1968).
[Crossref]

van Stapele, R. P.

W. A. Crossley, R. W. Cooper, J. L. Page, and R. P. van Stapele, Phys. Rev. 181, 896 (1969).
[Crossref]

Van Uitert, L. G.

Wadsack, R. L.

R. L. Wadsack, Joan L. Lewis, B. E. Argyle, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 3, 4342 (1971).
[Crossref]

B. E. Argyle, R. L. Wadsack, and R. K. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1478 (1971).
[Crossref]

Adv. Phys. (1)

R. Loudon, Adv. Phys. 13, 423 (1964).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

CR Acad. Sci. (Paris) (1)

F. Bertaut and F. Forrat, CR Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242, 382 (1956).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. F. Dillon, J. P. Remeika, and C. R. Staton, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1510 (1969).
[Crossref]

B. E. Argyle, R. L. Wadsack, and R. K. Chang, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1478 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. A. Koningstein, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2811 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

J. A. Koningstein and O. Sonnich Mortensen, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 27, 343 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Radium (1)

J. F. Dillon, J. Phys. Radium 20, 374 (1959).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. (1)

R. J. Elliott and R. Loudon, Phys. Lett. 3, 189 (1963).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (4)

A. B. Harris, Phys. Rev. 132, 2398 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. P. Hurrell, S. P. S. Porto, I. F. Chang, S. S. Mitra, and R. P. Bauman, Phys. Rev. 173, 851 (1968).
[Crossref]

P. A. Fleury and R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 166, 514 (1968).
[Crossref]

W. A. Crossley, R. W. Cooper, J. L. Page, and R. P. van Stapele, Phys. Rev. 181, 896 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

R. L. Wadsack, Joan L. Lewis, B. E. Argyle, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 3, 4342 (1971).
[Crossref]

R. H. Callender, S. S. Sussman, M. Selders, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 7, 3788 (1973).
[Crossref]

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. B (1)

F. Bertaut and R. Pauthenet, Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. B 104, 261 (1957).

Solid State Commun. (1)

A. Chaves and S. P. S. Porto, Solid State Commun. 10, 1075 (1972).
[Crossref]

Z. Kristallogr. (1)

G. Menzer, Z. Kristallogr. 69, 300 (1928).

Z. Phys. (1)

G. Mace, G. Schaack, Toaning-Ng, and J. A. Koningstein, Z. Phys. 230, 391 (1970).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Dana’s Manual of Mineralogy15th ed., revised by C. S. Hurlbut (Wiley, New York, 1941), p. 25.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering geometries for Raman scattering (A) by transmission in the aluminum and gallium garnets; (B), (C) by reflection in the iron garnets. Here V and H refer to the direction of the polarization as being in either the vertical or horizontal planes, respectively. The subscripts, i and s, refer to the incident and scattered light, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental Raman spectra of YbAlG and LuAlG at 80 K for the 5145-Å argon ion laser emission. Four incident scattered polarization combinations are shown for the scattering geometry (A) of Fig. 1 for both crystals. The Raman-active phonons A1g, Eg, T2g (labeled A, E, T), and the 2F7/2 crystal field electronic levels of Yb3+ (labeled 1, 2, 3) (Ref. 18) were identified using the polarization selection rules for Raman scattering (see Table I).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental Raman spectra of YIG at 80 K using the 5145-Å argon emission (A)–(C) and the 1.064-μm Nd:YAG emission (D). The Raman-active phonons A1g, Eg, and T2g are labeled A, E, and T, respectively. In (A)–(C), the notations VV and VH are the same as in Fig. 1. The B and C in parentheses (next to VV and VH) refer to the scattering geometries of Fig. 1. In (D), the incident light (1.064 μm) is circularly polarized, while the scattering light is unpolarized. The instrumental widths for both experiments are shown (7.5 cm−1 for 5145 Å and 4 cm−1 for 1.064 μm).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Relative phonon Raman intensities for crystal orientations shown in Fig. 1. (A) for aluminum and gallium garnets; (B), (C) for iron garnets. VV, VH, HV, and HH refer to the different polarization combinations for the incident and scattered light.

Tables Icon

Table II Energies (cm−1) and symmetry assignments of Raman-active phonons A1g, Eg, and T2g (labeled A, E, T) in the aluminum and gallium garnets at 80 K.

Tables Icon

Table III Energies (cm−1) and symmetry assignments of Raman-active phonons A1g, Eg, and T2g (labeled A, E, T) in the iron garnets at 80 K.