Abstract

Although a number of devices are currently in use for monitoring eye position, none is both accurate and convenient to use. Methods based on the use of contact lenses can provide high accuracy but have obvious inconveniences. Other techniques—e.g., skin-mounted electrodes, or eyeglass-mounted photoelectric pickups—are relatively convenient, but eye position can be measured to an accuracy of no better than about 0.5° to 1°. A novel eye-tracking instrument has been developed that makes use of two Purkinje images. The instrument operates in the infrared, so that it does not interfere with normal vision; it requires no attachments to the eye; it has a sensitivity and accuracy of about 1 min of arc, and operates over a two-dimensional visual field of 10° to 20° in diameter. The basic principle of the instrument is described, and operating records are shown.

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  1. The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 4, Table II, p. 111.
  2. Purkinje reflections are referenced to the optical axis of the eye. This is different from the visual axis of the eye, which centers on the fovea. For simplicity here, however, we will simply refer to the eye axis, meaning the optical axis when referring to the Purkinje reflections and the visual axis when referring to where the eye is looking. The angular separation between the optical and the visual axes varies from subject to subject, and must be accounted for in aligning and calibrating the instrument.
  3. D. A. Robinson, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 174, 245 (1964).
  4. M. H. Katcher, thesis, University of California, Berkeley (1972).
  5. H. B. Barlow, Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 36 (1963).
  6. G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 147, 194 (1959).
  7. L. A. Riggs and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 8, 159 (1968).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 36 (1963).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 147, 194 (1959).

Katcher, M. H.

M. H. Katcher, thesis, University of California, Berkeley (1972).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 8, 159 (1968).

Robinson, D. A.

D. A. Robinson, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 174, 245 (1964).

Schick, A. M. L.

L. A. Riggs and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 8, 159 (1968).

Other (7)

The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 4, Table II, p. 111.

Purkinje reflections are referenced to the optical axis of the eye. This is different from the visual axis of the eye, which centers on the fovea. For simplicity here, however, we will simply refer to the eye axis, meaning the optical axis when referring to the Purkinje reflections and the visual axis when referring to where the eye is looking. The angular separation between the optical and the visual axes varies from subject to subject, and must be accounted for in aligning and calibrating the instrument.

D. A. Robinson, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 174, 245 (1964).

M. H. Katcher, thesis, University of California, Berkeley (1972).

H. B. Barlow, Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 15, 36 (1963).

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 147, 194 (1959).

L. A. Riggs and A. M. L. Schick, Vision Res. 8, 159 (1968).

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