Abstract

The brightness of 2° centrally fixated monochromatic lights was measured by three methods: magnitude estimation, in which the observer made numerical estimates of brightness; delayed matching, in which he adjusted the luminance of an achromatic field until it matched the remembered brightness of the monochromatic field; and conventional heterochromatic photometry. The photometry data resemble the CIE Vλ function, but both the estimation and delayed-matching procedures result in substantially higher sensitivities to short-wavelength stimuli. Part of this excess sensitivity is due to scotopic intrusion and can be eliminated by light adaptation. The remaining sensitivity to short-wavelength stimuli resembles the sensitivity of peripheral cones.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. E. Marks, Percept. Psychophys. 9, 26 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Padgham, Vision Res. 11, 577 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Yager, Vision Res. 10, 521 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. S. Stevens, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by W. R. Loewenstein (Springer, Berlin, 1971), Vol. I, Ch. 7.
  5. S. M. Newhall, R. W. Burnham, and J. R. Clark, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (London, Constable, 1958), p. 203.
  7. L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. The data shown in the figures may be obtained in tabular form from the authors, or from the National Auxiliary Publications Service, c/o Microfiche Publications, 305 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.
  9. G. Ekman, Studium Generale 16, 54 (1963).
  10. Essentially the same mean sensitivity data can be obtained from the group-brightness-estimation plots (Fig. 1). However, the low-luminance ends of these functions are distorted because some observers’ slopes change in this region whereas others do not. To be certain that our criterion fell on the main part of each observer’s estimation function, we first obtained each individual’s spectral sensitivity function and then took the mean of these individual functions.
  11. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. C. Wilson, Ph.D. thesis, New York University (1964). Cited by D. H. Krantz, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 678.
  14. S. L. Guth, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, Soesterberg, 1972).

1971 (2)

L. E. Marks, Percept. Psychophys. 9, 26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Padgham, Vision Res. 11, 577 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

D. Yager, Vision Res. 10, 521 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

G. Ekman, Studium Generale 16, 54 (1963).

1957 (2)

1952 (1)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. W.

Clark, J. R.

Ekman, G.

G. Ekman, Studium Generale 16, 54 (1963).

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, Soesterberg, 1972).

Hsia, Y.

H. G. Sperling and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 707 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Marks, L. E.

L. E. Marks, Percept. Psychophys. 9, 26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Marks, L. W.

L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Newhall, S. M.

Padgham, C. A.

C. A. Padgham, Vision Res. 11, 577 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperling, H. G.

Stevens, J. C.

L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by W. R. Loewenstein (Springer, Berlin, 1971), Vol. I, Ch. 7.

Walsh, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (London, Constable, 1958), p. 203.

Wilson, B. C.

B. C. Wilson, Ph.D. thesis, New York University (1964). Cited by D. H. Krantz, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 678.

Yager, D.

D. Yager, Vision Res. 10, 521 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Percept. Psychophys. (2)

L. W. Marks and J. C. Stevens, Percept. Psychophys. 1, 17 (1966); Percept. Psychophys. 4, 315 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Marks, Percept. Psychophys. 9, 26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38, 80 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Studium Generale (1)

G. Ekman, Studium Generale 16, 54 (1963).

Vision Res. (2)

C. A. Padgham, Vision Res. 11, 577 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yager, Vision Res. 10, 521 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

S. S. Stevens, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, edited by W. R. Loewenstein (Springer, Berlin, 1971), Vol. I, Ch. 7.

The data shown in the figures may be obtained in tabular form from the authors, or from the National Auxiliary Publications Service, c/o Microfiche Publications, 305 East 46 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (London, Constable, 1958), p. 203.

Essentially the same mean sensitivity data can be obtained from the group-brightness-estimation plots (Fig. 1). However, the low-luminance ends of these functions are distorted because some observers’ slopes change in this region whereas others do not. To be certain that our criterion fell on the main part of each observer’s estimation function, we first obtained each individual’s spectral sensitivity function and then took the mean of these individual functions.

B. C. Wilson, Ph.D. thesis, New York University (1964). Cited by D. H. Krantz, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4, edited by D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich (Springer, Berlin, 1972), p. 678.

S. L. Guth, in Color Metrics, edited by J. J. Vos, L. F. C. Friele, and P. L. Walraven (AIC/Holland, Soesterberg, 1972).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Group-mean brightness-estimation data. Stimulus wavelength is given at the right of each line. Data at 670 nm are correctly placed on the vertical axis; each successive line above 670 has been raised by 0.2 log units to prevent overlapping. The solid lines were fitted to the filled data points by a method of least squares; the broken lines were drawn through the open data points by inspection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Group-mean spectral sensitivity, determined by brightness estimation (filled circles). Horizontal bars show the maximum and minimum individual observers’ sensitivities. Broken line: CIE Vλ. Dot–dash line: mean foveal threshold date (Hsia and Graham, Ref. 11), normalized at 553 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral sensitivity determined by brightness estimation after light adaptation to 7000 cd/m2 (filled circles). Horizontal bars show maximum and minimum individual sensitivities. Solid line: extrafoveal cone sensitivity; broken line: foveal cone sensitivity (Sperling and Hsia, Ref. 12). All functions normalized at 553 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral sensitivity determined by delayed matching (circles) and by photometry (triangles). Solid line: CIE Vλ. Broken line: sensitivity by brightness estimation, from Fig. 2. All functions normalized at 553 nm.