Abstract

A 150-ms flash of light is not only brighter than shorter flashes of the same luminance but is also brighter than longer flashes. The brightness decrement resulting from duration increments, the Broca–Sulzer phenomenon, does not occur when the contours of the stimulus field are heavily blurred. This suggests that the phenomenon is due to the temporal properties of a contour-dependent inhibitory process in the visual system. The result conflicts with the predictions of a lateral-inhibition explanation for the Broca–Sulzer phenomenon, but may be explainable in terms of movements of illuminance contours on the retina.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. L. Brown and C. G. Mueller, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), p. 209.
  2. A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. Physiol. (Paris) 4, 632 (1902).
  3. T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, Vision Res. 4, 391 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Alpern, Ph.D. thesis, The Ohio State University (1950).
  5. E. Baumgardt and J. Segal, Ann. Psychol. 43, 54 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. S. Katz, Vision Res. 4, 361 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. McDougall, Brit. J. Psycho. 1, 151 (1904).
  8. W. H. Stainton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 26 (1928).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. S. Wasserman, Vision Res. 6, 689 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (Wiley, New York, 1961), p. 739.
  11. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, The Perception of Lightness and Darkness (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1966).
  12. D. H. Raab, Psychol. Bull. 60, 118 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden–Day, San Francisco, 1965).
  14. G. A. Fry, Blur of the Retinal Image (Ohio State U. P., Columbus, 1955).
  15. H. D. Crane and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 577 (1970); L. E. Arend, Ph.D. thesis, Duke University (1970) (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich., order No. 71-21, 533).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. N. Cornsweet, Psychol. Rev. 170, 485 (1963).
  17. E. Mach, in Ref. 13, p. 267; M. Davidson and J. A. Whiteside, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 530 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Y. Teller, Vision Res. 8, 713 (1968).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. A. Riggs, J. C. Armington, and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

1968 (1)

D. Y. Teller, Vision Res. 8, 713 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

G. S. Wasserman, Vision Res. 6, 689 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1964 (2)

T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, Vision Res. 4, 391 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Katz, Vision Res. 4, 361 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (2)

D. H. Raab, Psychol. Bull. 60, 118 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. N. Cornsweet, Psychol. Rev. 170, 485 (1963).

1954 (1)

1942 (1)

E. Baumgardt and J. Segal, Ann. Psychol. 43, 54 (1942).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

1904 (1)

W. McDougall, Brit. J. Psycho. 1, 151 (1904).

1902 (1)

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. Physiol. (Paris) 4, 632 (1902).

Aiba, T. S.

T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, Vision Res. 4, 391 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, Ph.D. thesis, The Ohio State University (1950).

Armington, J. C.

Baumgardt, E.

E. Baumgardt and J. Segal, Ann. Psychol. 43, 54 (1942).
[Crossref]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (Wiley, New York, 1961), p. 739.

Broca, A.

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. Physiol. (Paris) 4, 632 (1902).

Brown, J. L.

J. L. Brown and C. G. Mueller, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), p. 209.

Cornsweet, T. N.

Crane, H. D.

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, Blur of the Retinal Image (Ohio State U. P., Columbus, 1955).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, The Perception of Lightness and Darkness (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1966).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, The Perception of Lightness and Darkness (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1966).

Katz, M. S.

M. S. Katz, Vision Res. 4, 361 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mach, E.

E. Mach, in Ref. 13, p. 267; M. Davidson and J. A. Whiteside, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 530 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDougall, W.

W. McDougall, Brit. J. Psycho. 1, 151 (1904).

Mueller, C. G.

J. L. Brown and C. G. Mueller, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), p. 209.

Raab, D. H.

D. H. Raab, Psychol. Bull. 60, 118 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratliff, F.

L. A. Riggs, J. C. Armington, and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden–Day, San Francisco, 1965).

Riggs, L. A.

Segal, J.

E. Baumgardt and J. Segal, Ann. Psychol. 43, 54 (1942).
[Crossref]

Stainton, W. H.

Stevens, S. S.

T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, Vision Res. 4, 391 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sulzer, D.

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. Physiol. (Paris) 4, 632 (1902).

Teller, D. Y.

D. Y. Teller, Vision Res. 8, 713 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wasserman, G. S.

G. S. Wasserman, Vision Res. 6, 689 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Psychol. (1)

E. Baumgardt and J. Segal, Ann. Psychol. 43, 54 (1942).
[Crossref]

Brit. J. Psycho. (1)

W. McDougall, Brit. J. Psycho. 1, 151 (1904).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Physiol. (Paris) (1)

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. Physiol. (Paris) 4, 632 (1902).

Psychol. Bull. (1)

D. H. Raab, Psychol. Bull. 60, 118 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, Psychol. Rev. 170, 485 (1963).

Vision Res. (4)

D. Y. Teller, Vision Res. 8, 713 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Aiba and S. S. Stevens, Vision Res. 4, 391 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Katz, Vision Res. 4, 361 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Wasserman, Vision Res. 6, 689 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (Wiley, New York, 1961), p. 739.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, The Perception of Lightness and Darkness (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1966).

M. Alpern, Ph.D. thesis, The Ohio State University (1950).

J. L. Brown and C. G. Mueller, in Vision and Visual Perception, edited by C. H. Graham (Wiley, New York, 1965), p. 209.

E. Mach, in Ref. 13, p. 267; M. Davidson and J. A. Whiteside, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 530 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden–Day, San Francisco, 1965).

G. A. Fry, Blur of the Retinal Image (Ohio State U. P., Columbus, 1955).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spatial luminance distributions equivalent to the test stimulus in (a) the control condition and (b) the experimental condition (3 diopters out of focus, assuming 7.5-mm pupil diameter). Based on Fry (Ref. 14).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the apparatus. (a) Right-eye channel for control condition. (b) Right-eye channel for experimental condition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean matching luminances for subject J. W. Comparison flash duration = 200 ms. Dotted line: 1100-mL blurred test flash. Dashed line: 800-mL blurred test flash. Solid line: 800-mL focused test flash.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean matching luminances for subject G. L. Comparison-flash duration = 200 ms. Dotted line: 800-mL blurred test flashes. Solid line: 800-mL focused test flashes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean matching luminances for subject L. A. Comparison-flash duration = 150 ms. Dotted line: 1100-mL blurred test flashes. Solid line: 800-mL focused test flashes.