Abstract

This paper presents a method of controlling the ellipsometric parameters (Ψ,Δ), pseudo-optical constants (n,k), and reflectance (R) of freshly deposited aluminum films. By use of this method, values ofΔ,n, andR can be predicted from measurements of the terminal pressure/terminal deposition rate (terminal p/r ratio) prevailing during deposition of the surface region. The pseudo-optical constants and reflectances were calculated using the Ψ,Δ values. The highest-purity aluminum (99.9999%) was used and ellipsometric measurements were made immediately after removal of the films from the vacuum system. A review of existing literature on ellipsometric parameters, optical constants, and reflectance of aluminum films in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions of the spectrum supports the theory that volume-oxide contamination is a primary factor affecting optical properties.

© 1973 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. Purchased from Leico Industries, 250 West 57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.
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    [CrossRef]
  19. F. L. McCrackin and S. P. Colson, Ellipsometry in Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Misc. Publ. No. W56 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963).
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    [CrossRef]

1970 (2)

R. W. Fane and W. E. Neal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 790 (1970).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

1963 (2)

1962 (1)

1961 (2)

1960 (1)

1957 (1)

1956 (1)

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

1950 (1)

Ashley, E. J.

Bates, B.

Bennett, H. E.

Bennett, J. M.

Berning, P. H.

Bradley, D. J.

Canfield, L. R.

Colson, S. P.

F. L. McCrackin and S. P. Colson, Ellipsometry in Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Misc. Publ. No. W56 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963).

Fane, R. W.

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fane and W. E. Neal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 790 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Grimes, N. W.

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Holland, L.

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1958), Ch. 11.

Hunter, W. R.

Madden, R. P.

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin and S. P. Colson, Ellipsometry in Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Misc. Publ. No. W56 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963).

Neal, W. E.

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fane and W. E. Neal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 790 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Oldham, W. G.

Schulz, L. G.

Scott, G. D.

Sennett, R. S.

Silver, M.

Tangherlini, F. R.

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948), Ch. 12.

Tousey, R.

Waylonis, J. E.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (14)

Philos. Mag. (1)

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1958), Ch. 11.

Reference 13, Ch. 6.

Purchased from Leico Industries, 250 West 57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948), Ch. 12.

F. L. McCrackin and S. P. Colson, Ellipsometry in Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Misc. Publ. No. W56 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Terminal deposition rate vs Δ for type I Al films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Terminal deposition rate vs n for type I Al films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Terminal deposition rate vs reflectance for type I Al films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Terminal p/r ratio vs Δ for type I Al films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Terminal p/r ratio vs n for type I Al films. ○ Type I films, ■ type II films, and ● Hass (Ref. 5) and Schulz (Ref. 20) (abscissas are average p/r ratio).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Terminal p/r ratio vs reflectance for type I Al films. ○ Type I films, ■ type II films, ● Hass (Ref. 5), Bennett (Refs. 9 and 10), and Schulz (Ref. 20) (abscissas are average p/r ratio).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Terminal p/r ratio vs Δ for type II Al films. ● Film Nos. 121–3, ○ film Nos. 131–3, and □ film Nos. 141–3. Numbers in parentheses represent period of time, after deposition, during which value of Δ was measured.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Terminal p/r ratio vs n for type II Al films. ● Film Nos. 121–3, ○ film Nos. 131–3, and □ film Nos. 141–3.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Terminal p/r ratio vs reflectance for type II Al films. ● Film Nos. 121–3, ○ film Nos. 131–3, and □ film Nos. 141–3.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

ψ vs reflectance for type I and type II Al films. ● Type I films, ○ type II films.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Deposition conditions and optical properties of type I films.

Tables Icon

Table II Deposition conditions and optical properties of type II films.

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of optical constants, reflectance, and deposition conditions.

Equations (1)

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2 Al + 3 H 2 O Al 2 O 3 + 3 H 2 .