Abstract

This paper presents a method of controlling the ellipsometric parameters (ψ,Δ), pseudo-optical constants <b>(<i>n</i>,<i>k</i>), and reflectance (<i>R</i>) of freshly deposited aluminum films. By use of this method, values of Δ, <i>n</i>, and <i>R</i></b> can be predicted from measurements of the terminal pressure/terminal deposition rate (terminal <i>p</i> /<i>r</i> ratio) prevailing during deposition of the surface region. The pseudo-optical constants and reflectances were calculated using the ψ,Δ values. The highest-purity aluminum (99.9999%) was used and ellipsometric measurements were made immediately after removal of the films from the vacuum system. A review of existing literature on ellipsometric parameters, optical constants, and reflectance of aluminum films in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions of the spectrum supports the theory that volume-oxide contamination is a primary factor affecting optical properties.

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  1. G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 945 (1955).
  2. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).
  3. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1070 (1957).
  4. P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586 (1960).
  5. G. Hass and J. E. Waylonis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 719 (1961).
  6. R. P. Madden and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 838 (1961).
  7. R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).
  8. B. Bates and D. J. Bradley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 481 (1967).
  9. H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1245 (1962).
  10. H. E. Bennett, M. Silver, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1089 (1963).
  11. W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).
  12. R. W. Fane and W. E. Neal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 790 (1970).
  13. L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1958), Ch. 11.
  14. R. S. Sennett and G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).
  15. Reference 13, Ch. 6.
  16. Purchased from Leico Industries, 250 West 57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.
  17. S. Tolansky, Multiple-beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948), Ch. 12.
  18. W. G. Oldham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 617 (1967).
  19. F. L. McCrackin and S. P. Colson, Ellipsometry in Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Misc. Publ. No. W56 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963).
  20. L. G. Schulz and F. R. Tangherlini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362 (1954).

Ashley, E. J.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1245 (1962).

H. E. Bennett, M. Silver, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1089 (1963).

Bates, B.

B. Bates and D. J. Bradley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 481 (1967).

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, M. Silver, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1089 (1963).

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1245 (1962).

Bennett, J. M.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1245 (1962).

Berning, P. H.

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586 (1960).

Bradley, D. J.

B. Bates and D. J. Bradley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 481 (1967).

Canfield, L. R.

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).

R. P. Madden and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 838 (1961).

Colson, S. P.

F. L. McCrackin and S. P. Colson, Ellipsometry in Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Misc. Publ. No. W56 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963).

Fane, R. W.

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).

R. W. Fane and W. E. Neal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 790 (1970).

Grimes, N. W.

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).

Hass, G.

G. Hass and J. E. Waylonis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 719 (1961).

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586 (1960).

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1070 (1957).

G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 945 (1955).

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).

Holland, L.

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1958), Ch. 11.

Hunter, W. R.

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1070 (1957).

Madden, R. P.

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586 (1960).

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).

R. P. Madden and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 838 (1961).

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin and S. P. Colson, Ellipsometry in Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Misc. Publ. No. W56 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963).

Neal, W. E.

R. W. Fane and W. E. Neal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 790 (1970).

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).

Oldham, W. G.

W. G. Oldham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 617 (1967).

Schulz, L. G.

L. G. Schulz and F. R. Tangherlini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362 (1954).

Scott, G. D.

R. S. Sennett and G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).

Sennett, R. S.

R. S. Sennett and G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).

Silver, M.

H. E. Bennett, M. Silver, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1089 (1963).

Tangherlini, F. R.

L. G. Schulz and F. R. Tangherlini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362 (1954).

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948), Ch. 12.

Tousey, R.

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1070 (1957).

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).

Waylonis, J. E.

G. Hass and J. E. Waylonis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 719 (1961).

Other (20)

G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 945 (1955).

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1070 (1957).

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586 (1960).

G. Hass and J. E. Waylonis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 719 (1961).

R. P. Madden and L. R. Canfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 838 (1961).

R. P. Madden, L. R. Canfield, and G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 620 (1963).

B. Bates and D. J. Bradley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 481 (1967).

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1245 (1962).

H. E. Bennett, M. Silver, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1089 (1963).

W. E. Neal, R. W. Fane, and N. W. Grimes, Philos. Mag. 21, 167 (1970).

R. W. Fane and W. E. Neal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 790 (1970).

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1958), Ch. 11.

R. S. Sennett and G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).

Reference 13, Ch. 6.

Purchased from Leico Industries, 250 West 57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948), Ch. 12.

W. G. Oldham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 617 (1967).

F. L. McCrackin and S. P. Colson, Ellipsometry in Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Natl. Bur. Std. (U.S.) Misc. Publ. No. W56 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963).

L. G. Schulz and F. R. Tangherlini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362 (1954).

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