Abstract

A general formula is derived that specifies the illumination (flux density) over an arbitrary receiver surface when light rays are reflected by or refracted through a curved surface. The direction of the deflected ray and its intersection with the receiving surface, used with the equation for the surfaces, lead to a transformation that maps an element of deflecting area onto the receiving area, by means of the jacobian determinant. A formula for the flux density along a ray path follows as a special case. An equation for the caustic surface is obtained from the latter. As an example radiation flux-density contours are calculated for a plane wave reflected from a sphere. Flux density and the caustic surface are calculated for a plane wave reflected onto a plane from a concave spherical lens and also for a plane wave refracted onto a plane through a hemisphere.

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